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What is the best way for a person to overcome the
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?

Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to

Think about the length of the word or concept.

Think about words that may sound like the word you are
trying to retrieve.

Name the letters that start or end the word.

Elizabeth Loftus’ research determined that:

eyewitness testimony is generally accurate and reliable.

flashbulb memories are rarely an accurate memory of the
actual event.

what people see and hear about an event after the fact can
easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event.

people tend to forget memories that are painful.

Which of the following best describes psychologist John
Kihlstrom’s comments when talking about Bartlett’s book on memory?

Memory is more like making up a story than it is like
reading a book.

Memory is more like reading a book than it is like making up
a story.

Memory is more like a movie than it is like taking a

Memory is more like reading a book than it is like going to
a movie.

A research study found that people who look at real visual
images and then are asked to simply imagine looking at visual images:

are often unable later to distinguish between the images
they had really seen and the imagined images.

often remember only some of the images.

are typically able later to distinguish between the images
they had really seen and the imagined images.

are often unable to remember any of the images.

Explicit memory begins to form after about age

when events become important enough to be stored in memory

corresponding to the development of the frontal lobe

when children see their memories as though they were in a

when the hippocampus is more fully developed

When a memory is being formed, several changes take place in
the brain in a process called:

deep processing.

encoding specificity.

automatic encoding.


Early memories before the age of two years tend to be
implicit, which may explain:

anterograde amnesia.

retrograde amnesia.

infantile amnesia.


Ebbinghaus’s ________ shows that forgetting happens quickly,
within the first hour, and then tapers off gradually.

curve of forgetting

distributed practice theory

encoding failure theory

interference theory

A(n) ________ is a memory expert or someone with exceptional
memory ability.





In real life, information that has just entered iconic
memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information. Research suggests
that after ________, old information is replaced by new information.

a quarter of a second

a half of a second

one second

a millisecond

In the information-processing model, the first stage of
memory is ______ memory.





According to Craik and Lockhart, information that is _______
will be remembered more effectively and for a longer period of time.

deeply processed

processed according to the sound of the physical
characteristics of the words

repeated many times


One may transfer information from short-term memory (STM)
into long-term memory (LTM) by:

elaborative rehearsal.

paying attention.

rote learning.


The most efficient way of transferring short-term memory
into long-term memory is by using:

maintenance rehearsal.

elaborative rehearsal.

rote learning.


If you move from the United States to England and have
trouble adjusting to driving on the left side of the road, you are

memory trace decay.

encoding failure.

proactive interference.

retroactive interference.

Donyelle finds that she performs better on the exams that
are given in her regular psychology classroom than in the large lecture room
that is used to give midterms and finals to several sections at once.
Donyelle’s experience illustrates:

the role of the primacy effect.

the importance of maintenance rehearsal in memory.

the role of the recency effect.

the importance of retrieval cues in memory.

Marcos and his friends enjoy watching football together on
Sundays. After some of the games are over, Marcos tells his friends that he
knew all along who would win the game. Marcos’ belief that he could predict the
outcome of some of the games without having been told the winners in advance is
an example of:

hindsight bias.

the misinformation effect.

the primacy effect.

encoding specificity.

As opposed to _______ memories, ________ memories are easily
made conscious.

semantic; autobiographical

implicit; explicit

explicit; implicit

episodic; semantic

Psychologists consider memory to be:

an active system.

only possible with effort.

a passive storage bank of experiences.

limited to encoding sensory information.

The idea that memory formation is a simultaneous process is
reflected in the:

parallel distributed processing model.

levels-of-processing model.

iconic memory model.

information-processing model.

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