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2.1.1.1 Trait theory of personality
Trait theory of personality is concerned with the identification and measurement of human characteristics. These human characteristics could be personality, aptitude, competency, ability, and so on. These characteristics (also called traits) contribute to the disposition of an individual. A trait is a characteristic of an individual that is assumed to be stable across situations and time but differ across individuals. This characteristic can be numerous in an individual and when all are combined they form the psychological person. Cherry (2016) has it that the combination and interaction of various traits form a personality that is unique to an individual. Each individual has a unique personality trait and …show more content…
Charles Spearman proposed this theory in 1904 and called it “Two-factor theory”. Spearman’s two factor theory is based on factor analysis. This is a psychometric procedure that correlates test scores to ascertain underlying factors. He applied factor analysis to study relationships between examinees scores on tests of intelligence. From his results he concluded that examinees who performed poorly on an intelligence test also tended to perform poorly on other intelligent tests. The findings of his study led him to conclude that there are some factors that are common to all intellectual tasks. He further explained that each examinee’s activity involves a general factor ‘g’ with which it shares with all intellectual activity and a specific factor ‘s’ which belongs to a specific ability of that particular examinee to deal with specific problems. ‘g’ run across all forms of test tasks that an examinee performs. The quantity of ‘g’ depends on the amount of cerebral cortex energy present and the maximum quantum of this is predetermined. The degree to which an examinee uses this energy during testing and other activities depends on his exposure, environment, upbringing, motivation, education, and so on. Higher degree of this energy use correlates with higher success while lower degree of this energy use correlates with lower degree of success. Unequal exposure to experiences in examinees results in differential performances. Environmental

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