1)What did Watson
believe about behavior?
it stems from unconscious motivation that it and personality form in the first
6 years of life that it is learned that it is related to repressed conflict
2)John Watson believed that phobias:
the result of a traumatic event. are an indication of a deeper mental problem.
cannot be eliminated entirely. are learned through the process of conditioning.
3)Freud believed that personality was formed:
first 6 years of life. in the first 2 years of life. around puberty when the
sex organs develop. after a traumatizing event.
4)The psychological perspective that is
associated with William James is:
functionalism. conflict. psychoanalysis.
5)Which of the following is a guideline for
doing research with people?
must understand that confidentiality is not guaranteed. Deception is never
justified. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about
participation. Participants cannot just quit without a valid, logical reason.
6)Because psychologists want to be precise and
measure as carefully as they can, they use ________ to study psychology.
processes functionalism and structuralism introspection the scientific method
7)A ________ has a medical degree and is a
medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological
social worker psychiatrist psychologist psychoanalyst
8)Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis:
place in modern scientific study. is as commonly used today as it was a few
decades ago. has been completely rejected by modern psychologists. is still in
use by professionals today, with less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations.
9)Mary is a psychologist who focuses on the
role of the conscious and unconscious minds. To which perspective does Mary
psychodynamic cognitive behavioral
10)________ focuses on how people think,
remember, store, and use information.
Cognitive psychology Structuralism Objective introspection
11)Which of the following illustrates
psychology’s goal of control?
rewards to help a smoker give up cigarettes. giving psychological tests to a
new therapy client to determine the client’s symptoms. predicting students’
university grades based on their high school grades. observing the behavior of
children in preschool.
12)Sasha sat in the preschool classroom and
watched the children play, writing down how well they interacted with each
other. The children could see that Sasha was watching them, so they made an
attempt to be extra well-behaved for her. Sasha’s research will be impacted by:
observation. an inability to replicate the results. the observer effect.
Mary took the survey in the mall, she noticed that the interviewer was wearing
an Obama button. She answered the questions more favorably toward Obama than
she might otherwise have, probably because:
observer bias. the survey questions were biased. she misunderstand the purpose
of the survey. of courtesy bias.
14)Anna is 45 years old and is suffering from
hot flashes and extreme moodiness. From a(n) _____ perspective, Anna’s symptoms
can be attributed to menopause.
psychodynamic cognitive analytical
15)Dr. Edwards wants to show a causal
relationship between tobacco smoking and cancer. Dr. Edwards should:
correlation between smoking and the rates of cancer. observe people smoking.
conduct an experiment using animal participants. conduct a telephone survey
asking smokers about their health.
16)A researcher wants to describe children’s
normal behavior on the playground. The best method for this research is to use
survey. an experiment. a case study. naturalistic observation.
17)Mrs. Lewis participated in a study in which
she was given no treatment for her condition. Mrs. Lewis was in the ________
observed control experimental
Jonas wanted to determine what would happen if rats were given food every time
they completed a maze. He believed they would learn to complete the maze
faster. This belief is called
explanation. control. a description. a prediction.
19)Mrs. O’Connor participated in a study in
which she was told she would try out a new allergy medicine. She was in the
group that received a sugar pill, but she believed that the pill did indeed
help control her allergy symptoms. This phenomenon is known as:
experimenter effect. the mind-over-matter effect. the placebo effect. a
20)A drug company is determining the effects
of a treatment for depression. Neither the researcher nor the participants know
who is getting the treatment and who is given a sugar pill. This type of study
double-blind. quasi-experimental. an institutional review.
21)Researchers who allow their expectations
about what they will see to affect the results of their observation studies are
observation. the observer effect. observer bias. controlled observation.
22)Researchers use ________ for reducing bias
and error in the measurement of data.
descriptive methods naturalistic observation case studies the scientific method
23)Experimenters control the effects of
extraneous or confounding variables upon members of experimental and control
groups by using:
random assignment. double-blind studies. independent observers.
24)Correlation will tell researchers all of
the following EXCEPT ________ between variables.
strong the relationship is in what direction the relationship goes if there is
causation if there is a relationship
25)If a correlation coefficient is positive:
one of the variables goes up. the two variables have an inverse relationship.
the number is represented by the letter p. the two variables increase in the
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