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Psychology For Living: Adjustment, Growth, and Behavior
9th Edition, 2008
ISBN: 0-13-222447-X
Karen Grover Duffy and Eastwood Atwater
Pearson/Prentice Hall
925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Phone:
714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-5777
Psychology of Adjustment
Final ExaminationFinal Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the
enclosed answer sheet)
1) The world as we know it today is characterized by
A) more collectivism in comparison to individualism
B) galloping technological changes
C) slower social change than was witnessed in previous
D) a movement toward increased industrialization and fewer
service industries
2) The fear of technology is known as
A) technophobia
B) electronosis
C) decidophobia
D) computeritis
3) What is the most popular (frequent) method used by
Americans to fi nd infor-
A) radio
B) newspapers
C) Internet
4) In today’s world, almost ________ percent of Americans
use e-mail.
A) 75
B) 50
C) 100
D) 25
5) Which is NOT a technique to help the environment?
A) recycle
B) reproduce
C) reuse
D) reduce
6) Truly autonomous people who are unafraid to make
important decisions and
who accept
responsibility for their lives and their decisions are
A) collectivistic
B) self-actualized
C) normalistic
D) decidoteric2
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
7) Researchers have found high stability across a life span
for which personality
A) introversion-extroversion
B) authoritarianism
C) perfectionism
D) self-esteem
8) The highest degree of stability of personality has been
found in the domain of
A) authoritarianism
B) introversion-extroversion
C) perfectionism
D) self-esteem
9) How does personal growth usually proceed?
A) acknowledgment, dissatisfaction, reorganization
B) dissonance, neutrality, consonance
C) dissatisfaction, reorganization, acknowledgment
D) dissonance, consonance, neutrality
10) The experience of personal growth usually ends with the
stage of
A) changing our attitudes
B) reorganizing our experience
C) acknowledging change
D) feeling anxiety and discomfort
11) In which psychoanalytic stage did Freud say genuine love
A) anal
B) genital
C) latency
D) oral
12) According to Erikson, the second stage of psychosocial
development poses
the developmental
task of
A) autonomy vs. shame
B) industry vs. inferiority
C) trust vs. mistrust
D) initiative vs. guiltFinal Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
13) The process by which we learn by observing is called
A) reinforcement
B) punishment
C) observational learning
D) learning theory
14) ________ emphasizes the importance of learning and the
environment rather
than biological or
unconscious drives.
A) Jung’s analytical psychology
B) Bandura’s social learning theory
C) Erikson’s psychosocial theory
D) Freud’s psychodynamic theory
15) Ken argued with Audra that they should give up their
stressful jobs and move
to a small town to
start a winery. He was confi dent they would be successful.
Ken has high levels
A) self-effi cacy
B) personality dynamism
C) self-actualizing tendency
D) ego as well as id
16) Humanistic psychology has received national prominence
A) deconstructivist
B) the third force in psychology
C) emphasizing individual sameness
D) Freud’s theory
17) According to the concept of positive regard, children
automatically develop a
need for
A) behavior rewards
B) acceptance by others
C) social consciousness
D) valuing self
18) According to Maslow, self-actualizing people
A) have reached a healthier level of functioning than the
rest of us
B) are more self-centered than the average person
C) have met all their life goals
D) are exempt from anxiety as well as neurotic behavior4
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
19) According to Maslow, self-actualization is
A) more common among children than adults
B) rarely achieved until young adulthood
C) a lifelong task that is rarely completed
D) usually attained in Western but not Eastern societies
20) With advancing age, individual differences in
development become
A) no different
B) less pronounced
C) more pronounced
D) none of the above describe advancing age
21) The developmental task of leaving home most importantly
A) differentiating one’s self from one’s parents
B) getting married and having a family
C) cutting all ties to one’s parents
D) moving out of the family home
22) In the last decade, a trend seen in young adults’
behavior is that
A) more young adults are moving in with their parents
B) more young adults are majoring in humanities and social
C) many are less concerned with social issues, such as
D) more females than males between 20-24 years old are
living with their
23) Women in midlife often
A) worry about their biological clock
B) avoid schooling
C) avoid adoption
D) avoid the workforce
24) Is there any way to predict Alzheimer’s disease?
A) yes, mild cognitive impairment at midlife often predicts
later Alzheimer’s
B) yes, the way to test for it is to test for memory loss
when it is fi rst suspected
C) no, it is found only upon autopsy
D) no, there is no way to predict nor to diagnose it for
sure Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
25) Viagra is for
A) men only, not women
B) older men in their change of life
C) arthritis in men and women
D) young people, both male and female
26) Which factor(s) account(s) for an individual’s desire to
A) attitudes toward retirement
B) perceived adequacy of income
C) general health
D) all of the above
27) What is true of the Social Security system?
A) the government can be depended on to help the elderly
even if they have
never worked a day in
their lives
B) the age for eligibility is rising
C) individuals automatically receive it upon retirement
D) all of these are true
28) The more active a person is, the more satisfi ed a
person remains is explained
A) disenchantment
B) the climacteric
C) activity theory
D) disenfranchisement
29) All those perceptions of “I” and “me” together with the
feelings and beliefs
associated with them
are called the
A) social self
B) ideal self
C) real self
D) self-concept
30) The notion that each of us has multiple selves really
A) there is no coherent core of the self-concept
B) everyone has multiple personality disorders
C) there is no such thing as the self-concept
D) the self-concept is a cluster of self images 6
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
31) Experiences that are inconsistent with our existing
self-concept tend to be
A) admitted fully into conscious awareness
B) distorted or denied to awareness
C) incorporated into our ideal self
D) labeled accurately
32) Experiences that are consistent with both our sensory
reactions and self–
A) are denied to awareness
B) are usually distorted
C) are rarely accurately labeled
D) comprise the core of our self-concept
33) Low self-esteem is characterized by
A) trying so hard to improve his math scores
B) poor performance on spelling tests
C) refusal to accept praise
D) all of the above
34) According to the text, our perception of how others view
us is keyed to
A) who we would like to be
B) what others think of us
C) the way we see ourselves
D) our parental infl uence
35) Research demonstrates that most individuals
A) expect higher grades than they receive
B) underestimate their own intelligence
C) overestimate how salient their own behaviors and
appearance are to others
D) feel self-feedback is more important than feedback from
36) One of the best ways to handle personal criticism is to
take it as
A) a matter that requires you to defend yourself
B) a matter which requires immediate action
C) a cue that action may be required
D) the refl ection of another person’s envy Final
Psychology of Adjustment
37) During the early stages of psychotherapy and
self-improvement, people tend
to express a lot of
A) rejection of the therapist
B) self-insight
C) self-dissatisfaction
D) self-acceptance
38) Which of the following is true about the ideal body
thought to be desired by
the opposite sex?
A) women believe men want a thin woman, but men do not confi
rm this
B) college women think men want a woman who is thinner with
larger breasts
than the woman the
men say they actually desire
C) college men think women want a man who is thinner and
taller than the man
the women say they
actually want
D) the type of woman men actually want is dissimilar to the
body ideal held by
39) With regard to health behaviors, which personality trait
enables us to adopt
healthy and therefore
preventive behaviors?
A) competitiveness
B) self-effi cacy
C) introspection
D) conformity
40) A return to previous behavior is called
A) addiction
B) rebound
C) relapse
D) none of the above
41) Women doctors
A) spend more time with patients
B) explain medical terminology better
C) allow patients to talk more
D) all of the above 8
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
42) According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s food
pyramid, what sub-
stance should we
consume the most of?
A) meat
B) breads
C) dairy
D) fruits and vegetables
43) Which statement is true about dreams?
A) dreams are unnecessary
B) dreams are realistic and meaningful
C) dream analysis is well agreed upon
D) dream time decreases as we age
44) Physical fi tness is associated with
A) fi ghting some cancers
B) reducing anxiety
C) improved mood
D) all of the above
45) ________ locus of control is when a person believes they
have control;
________ locus of
control is when a person feels an outside source has
A) internal; external
B) external; internal
C) personal; external
D) personal; internal
46) One of the most reliable predictors of who will complete
or drop out of pro-
grams for weight loss
or substance abuse is the individual’s
A) educational level
B) perceived control
C) gender
D) marital status
47) When we want to lead and inspire others, we should
A) focus only on the negative aspects of changing our ways
B) focus on short-term but negative effects
C) focus on being optimistic and emphasizing the positive
D) focus on building empathy Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
48) In the recommended process for making wise decisions,
the fi fth and fi nal
stage consists of
A) accepting the challenge
B) assessing your actions and decision
C) following through with your decision
D) searching for alternatives
49) Which of the following is an example of reactance?
A) driving slowly because someone is tailgating to get you
to speed up
B) reading a book you have always wanted to read just for
sheer pleasure
C) fi nishing a crossword puzzle and feeling very proud of
D) giving money to charity every year and giving the same
50) The technique of listing the advantages and
disadvantages of a given course
of action before making
a decision is called
A) values clarifi cation
B) direct decision therapy
C) creative confl ict management
D) the balance sheet procedure
51) The need that appears at the top of Maslow’s hierarchy
A) belonging
B) physiological needs
C) safety needs
D) self-actualization
52) According to Maslow’s hierarchical model of needs, the
most urgent need is
A) the highest level of unmet needs
B) the need for self-actualization
C) the need for security and other social needs
D) the lowest level of unmet needs
53) Intrinsic motivation involves active engagement out of
personal interest, while
external motivation
A) engagement to satisfy family
B) a need to have others guide you
C) engagement as a means to an end
D) a desire to help others 10
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
54) Zuckerman and others suggest that the need for
sensation-seeking behavior
A) is entirely due to our life circumstances, especially our
fi eld of employment;
if the job is boring,
we seek sensations elsewhere
B) may be partly biological
C) becomes stronger with age
D) is not affected by social infl uences
55) An effi cacious person says:
A) ”Why didn’t I do this yesterday?”
B) “We don’t have to be perfect.”
C) ”I can do this. “
D) “I may do it now or never.”
56) Based on his cross-cultural research, Matsumoto claims
that a seventh
universal emotion
expressed on the human face is
A) frustration
B) love
C) joy
D) contempt
57) A basic principle of person perception is
A) our fi rst impressions are not the most lasting
B) people form impressions of others only after they have
gleaned lots of infor-
C) not all of us form fi rst impressions of other people; we
wait to pass judgment
D) people tend to form extensive impressions of others on
the basis of very little
58) Our fi rst impressions of people are generally based on
A) sound psychological principles
B) very little information
C) careful observations
D) a lot of experience with the person Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
59) When it comes to physical attraction between people of
the opposite sex, the
“matching hypothesis”
implies that
A) females seek males who match their parents’ images
B) males seek females like their mothers, and females seek
males like their
C) we are attracted to people who reciprocate our liking of
D) we seek people who are about as attractive as we are
60) Shyness in the extreme is called social anxiety, or
A) social phobia
B) unfamiliarity
C) psychopathic
D) biological predisposition
61) Who is shy?
A) teens are the shiest age group in America
B) women are shier than men
C) adults are shier than children
D) whites are shier than minorities
62) Which statement is true about loneliness?
A) people with high emotional intelligence experience
greater loneliness
B) individuals whose parents died experience increased
C) people who are high in empathy and aware of their
emotions tend to be lonely
D) some of the loneliest people had divorced parents when
they were young
63) What is the correct sequence of group formation,
according to the text?
A) forming, storming, norming, and performing
B) storming, forming, norming, and performing
C) norming, storming, performing, and forming
D) forming, storming, performing, and norming
64) In what type of social infl uence situation do we follow
direct commands from
A) interpersonal attraction
B) compliance
C) conformity
D) obedience 12
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
65) The “great man theory” found ________ traits to be
correlated with effective
U.S. presidents.
A) 3
B) 4
C) 5
D) 6
66) Which set of terms best fi t together?
A) in-group, task-oriented, groupthink
B) great man theory, women, conformity
C) collectives, conformity, group polarization
D) emotional intelligence, charismatic leader,
transformational leader
67) The person who remains neutral in a confl ict but
renders a binding solution to
the confl ict is
known as a(n)
A) mindguard
B) arbitrator
C) mediator
D) none of these is correct
68) People who score high on the Realistic theme of the
Strong Interest Inventory
would most likely
enjoy a job working as an
A) accountant
B) biologist
C) engineer
D) stockbroker
69) Which is NOT a major reason that job satisfaction tends
to rise with age and/
or years on the job?
A) knowing offi ce politics and how to circumvent them
B) having more realistic job expectations
C) job security
D) rising pay
70) Which of the following is an example of sexual
harassment according to the
text’s defi nition?
A) a male coworker whistles at his female colleague who
wears a short skirt to
work; she is so
distressed by this that she never again wears a short skirt to
work Final
Psychology of Adjustment
B) a male employer puts his arm around his secretary who is
each time he does
C) a male coworker often tells dirty jokes which embarrass
all the female em-
D) all of these are examples, especially if the behavior
impedes the performance
of the women
71) According to a Lou Harris poll, compared to workers in
the recent past, the
average American
worker today
A) has the same amount of leisure time
B) works fewer hours a week
C) has less leisure time
D) has more leisure time
72) The most common reason Americans take a vacation is for
A) family togetherness
B) escape
C) self-discovery
D) relaxation
73) The Masters and Johnson team identifi ed ________ stages
in the sexual
response cycle.
A) 6
B) 5
C) 4
D) 7
74) When she is sure she won’t see anyone she knows, Sveta
occasionally goes
out in public dressed
like a man. She probably is
A) a transsexual
B) a crossdresser
C) intersexed
D) autoerotic 14
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
75) According to the text, the ideal type of love is
A) intimate love
B) passionate love
C) companionate love
D) consummate love
76) Which one of the following birth control techniques is
regarded as most effec-
A) diaphragm
B) cervical cap
C) combined birth-control pills
D) condom
77) Which STD if left untreated can cause brain damage,
blindness, or paralysis?
A) genital herpes
B) syphilis
C) chlamydia
D) all three of these
78) In the triangular theory of love, ________ is the
motivational aspect of love.
A) passion
B) commitment
C) intimacy
D) romance
79) According to studies comparing people’s current romantic
relationships with
their childhood
attachment styles, individuals who exhibit the “anxious-am-
bivalent” pattern
A) are the most cynical about romantic love
B) report their romances last the longest
C) are the most prone to jealousy
D) fall in love easily, but rarely fi nd true love
80) The divorce rate in the U.S. now stands at ________
A) 50
B) 75
C) 25
D) 5 Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
81) EFT is a technique to
A) change thought and emotional patterns
B) intervene in disputes
C) handle family budgets
D) aid in sexual dysfunction
82) Studies of divorced people have shown that
A) most remarry in the fi rst year after their divorce
B) few of them are willing ever to marry anyone
C) most divorced people marry another divorced person
D) none of these is true about divorced people
83) According to Hans Selye, stress which has a benefi cial
effect on us is called
A) eustress
B) hypostress
C) distress
D) hyperstress
84) What are common reactions to terrorism?
A) feeling tense
B) sleep problems
C) feeling numb
D) all of the above
85) In his fi rst week as an air-traffi c controller, Harley
is already complaining of
headaches and
fatigue. Harley’s symptoms are characteristic of which stage
of the general
adaptation syndrome?
A) the intermediate stage
B) resistance
C) exhaustion
D) alarm
86) Cumulative changes that refl ect the cost to the body
for adapting to stressful
demands is called
A) allostatic load
B) acting out
C) homeostasis
D) repression16
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
87) Withdrawal from a stressful situation
A) is a viable problem-solving response under some
B) is almost always an unhealthy, maladjusted response to
C) is a temporary symptom-reducing response, so it rarely
D) is the preferred response in almost all stressful
88) In terms of mental disorders, most mental health
professionals greatly attend
A) the statistical rarity of the behavior
B) the legal model of insanity
C) the person’s reputation among his or her peers
D) the individual’s level of personal distress
89) With regard to mental disorder and diversity, which
statement(s) is/are true?
A) minorities in treatment receive poorer quality care
B) minorities are underrepresented in mental health research

C) minorities have less access to mental health services
D) all of these are true
90) Which is not a category of compulsions?
A) hoarder
B) slacker
C) repeater
D) orderer
91) In contrast to major depression, bipolar disorder
A) is more common in the general population
B) is more prevalent among women than men
C) is more prevalent among married people
D) usually occurs before age 30
92) Which of the following are obvious symptoms of
A) fear of being alone and fear of high places
B) overeating and anxiety
C) delusions and hallucinations
D) none of these is a symptom of psychosis Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
93) Which type of therapy emphasizes the importance of the
therapist’s attitude
of acceptance and
empathetic understanding of the client?
A) psychoanalytic therapy
B) rational-emotive therapy
C) person-centered therapy
D) gestalt therapy
94) The notion that the people who can help you best are
those who have similar
problems is a common
assumption in
A) gestalt therapy
B) contextual therapy
C) mutual-help groups
D) social skills training
95) The class of medication for mental disorders that has
increased most dra-
matically is
A) lithium products
B) antianxiety drugs
C) antipsychotic medication
D) antidepressants
96) ________ has been shown by multiple studies to reduce
A) Eating more salt and less sugar
B) Exercise, such as jogging
C) Eating more sugar and less salt
D) Listening to classical music
97) People tend to overestimate the risk of death from
causes such as
A) strokes
B) heart attacks
C) accidents
D) diabetes
98) Mary is less fearful of death than many older people her
age. According to the
text, a major reason
for Mary’s diminished fear of death probably is her
A) having a college education
B) genuine belief in the afterlife
C) feeling that “it can’t happen to me”
D) having cared for a terminally ill friend 18
Final Examination
Psychology of Adjustment
99) The healthy process of grief work involves
A) avoiding formal funeral services for others
B) wearing mourning clothes
C) not talking about one’s loss
D) sharing one’s feelings of grief
100) What is a typical response of caregivers to long-term
A) depression
B) relief when the cared for person dies
C) self-satisfaction
D) resentment

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