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Necrotizing fasciitis, more commonly know as the “flesh-eating disease,” is a potentially deadly infection if left untreated or misdiagnosed (2). The infection begins in the skin’s superficial fascia, a band of connective tissue that stabilizes muscles and other internal organs. Fascia is very widespread throughout the human body, providing a basic mechanism for the bacteriato grow and spread rapidly. Once anchored in the fascial planes, the infecting bacteria cause the surrounding skin, fat, muscle, and other tissues to die. Early symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis include fever, thirst, nausea, sore throat, and minor pain around the affected area. These symptoms progress quickly and become more critical and life-threatening. They include …show more content…
Type I is the polymicrobial type, in which multiple types of bacteria interact. Type II specifically involves the bacterium group A Streptococcus, the most common and deadly cause of necrotizing fasciitis. Type III is closely related with the bacterium Clostridium, and usually appears in patients with colon cancer or leukemia. Lastly, type IV comprises all of the lesser known causes, such as various fungi and a few other types of bacteria (3). Encompassing all four classifications, the most well-known strains of bacteria that cause necrotizing fasciitis include group A Streptococcus, Staphylococcus auerus, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium (2). Knowing the specific type of bacteria involved is vital, because it determines the infection’s lethality and optimal treatment …show more content…
GAS is associated with many other common illnesses, such as pharyngitis, and scarlet fever (2). It is also a gram-positive bacterium, meaning the bacterium itself has a thick cell wall made of the protein peptidoglycan. This extra protein layer makes it more susceptible to antibiotics. While this susceptibility aids in treatment once necrotizing fasciitis is diagnosed, these bacteria are carried every day by humans in our noses, throats, and skin, showing no physical symptoms. Once an object pierces the body, infection is more likely because this bacterium is so widely prevalent. When GAS causes necrotizing fasciitis, it can also occur simultaneously with Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (STSS). This additional, and sometimes fatal condition STTS, accelerates the metastasis of necrotizing fasciitis (1). Since GAS is the most known cause of necrotizing fasciitis, researchers are actively trying to target and prevent this strand directly. Through extensive genetic analysis, a natural single nucleotide mutation has been identified and is associated with decreased presentation of necrotizing fasciitis in humans. Identifying what specific genes involving GAS result in an infectious outcome is highly useful. In the future, genome editing techniques could allow for the deactivation of genes directly related to necrotizing fasciitis, resulting in fewer diagnosed cases

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