The visual cliff experiment showed that babies have:
a stepping reflex.
some depth perception.
the ability to follow verbal cues.
Vygotsky’s _________ is the difference between what a child
can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher.
formal operations stage
theory of scaffolding
concrete operations stage
zone of proximal development
Which of the following is true about reflexes?
No survival or interaction purposes have been found for the
reflexes of newborn infants.
Reflexes are learned, voluntary patterns of behavior that
develop throughout infancy.
Some reflexes help infants to survive until they are capable
of learning more complex means of interaction.
Reflex actions are the main means by which humans interact
throughout the lifespan.
The primary task of individuals facing Erikson’s stage of
identity versus role confusion is to:
nurture the next generation.
find a mate.
become self-sufficient with a job and home separate from
develop values in life and beliefs concerning such things as
political issues and career options.
Adolescence, p. 337
The impulsive and often risky behavior that can still be
seen in adolescence is partially the result of:
incomplete development of the prefrontal cortex of the
changes in the secondary sex characteristics.
the onset of puberty.
the resolution of a personal fable.
The first stage in Kübler-Ross’s theory is:
People who ________ have been found to be far less likely to
develop memory problems in old age.
consistently get 8 hours of sleep each night
exercise their mental abilities
The _______ believe that a person who has died is in the
Erikson believes that during late adulthood, people engage
in a process called:
a life review.
The changes that women experience 5 to 10 years prior to
universal around the world.
accompanied by an increase in estrogen.
all in their heads.
Generally speaking, a person experiences the peak of their
physical functioning during their:
When Lira was born, her parents agreed to allow her to
participate in a research project that investigates the development of motor
skills in children. Every year, Lira’s parents complete a survey answering questions
about how Lira’s motor skills have changed. The researchers are using only one
group of parents and children for the study. Lira and her parents are
participating in a study that uses a ________ design.
combination of cross-sectional and cross-sequential
A 4 year old watches her father pour liquid from a short,
wide glass into a tall, thin glass. She believes that there is now more liquid
in the tall glass than there was in the short glass. This is known as:
Vygotsky emphasized the importance of social interactions in
cognitive development, whereas ________ stressed the importance of the child’s
interactions with objects.
Pete and Evelyn are decorating the room for the baby they
are expecting. To ensure that the baby’s room provides appropriate stimulation,
the couple seek the advice of a developmental psychologist, who tells them that
newborns prefer to look at:
animals rather than people.
one dimension rather than three.
simple rather than complex patterns.
Lizzie, age 12, regularly asks questions, such as,
“What if everyone just got along?” and, “If I became a medical
researcher, could I find a cure for cancer?” According to Piaget’s theory,
these questions suggest that Lizzie has acquired the ability to _____.
mentally reverse actions
consider all relevant features of an object
When Calvin’s mother left him with the babysitter, Calvin
said, “Mommy go.” This is an example of:
Sixteen-year-old Esmerelda often drinks several glasses of
beer and then drives herself home. When her parents express worry that her
drinking and driving will lead to an accident, Esmerelda responds, “That
won’t happen to me. It only happens to other people.” Esmerelda’s thinking
the imaginary audience.
the personal fable.
Adolescence, p. 336
Dr. Austin is studying the effects of aging on memory. She
gives an initial test of memory to a group of 20 year olds and a group of 40
year olds. Then she follows both groups of participants for a period of 5 years,
regularly giving them memory tests during that time. Which research design is
Dr. Austin using?
One disadvantage of the longitudinal design is:
the lengthy amount of time involved.
that it is extremely complicated.
individuals of different ages are being compared to each
Humans have a total of ____ chromosomes in each cell of
________ is carried by recessive genes and inherited when a
child inherits two recessive genes.
Fragile X syndrome
A ______ will always be expressed in the observable trait.
Genes that actively control the expression of a trait are
referred to as:
A researcher spends her entire career comparing the relative
influences of heredity and environment on the development of alcoholism in men.
This researcher works in the field of:
In the study of human development, the term nature refers
the influence of our inherited characteristics on our
personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
the influence of the environment on personality, physical
growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
During the embryonic period, the embryo
grows to about 5-inches long
remains unaffected by environmental influences
becomes vulnerable to diseases the mother may have
still has no beating heart
______ is a teratogen that may cause blindness.
________ may cause miscarriage and low birth weight for the
Dizygotic twins ___________________________.
refer to 2 babies coming from one fertilized egg
each possess the same set of 46 chromosomes
are more likely to occur in women taking fertility drugs
are always the same sex
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