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Multiple Choice Questions(Enter
your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1.”Men
can’t cook.” Thisis
all that Jim heard for the week
leading upto his
first attempt at making Thanksgiving
dinner forhisfamily,
despite the fact that he had plenty of experience cooking for these same
people. When he finally attempted to cook thedinner,
he panicked,and
burnt the turkey. Such a result is a demonstration
of: (a)
latent learn i ng
(b) a forgetting curve
stereotype threat (d)
performance dissociation 2.The
term is used to describe the
study of how we have come to have knowledge.
nativism (b)
epistemology (d)
none of the above 3.
Latent learning occurs when a behavioral change: (a)
is observed at the time of initial learning
(b) is not
observed until some time has passed betweeninitial learning and
demonstration of that learning (c)
is never observed (d)
none ofthe above 4.
In the past,the term “learning”
has been usedin
reference to: (a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks
(b) verbal recall tasks (c)
the conscious recollection ofpast
(d) material presented for study on one occasion
In the past,the term”memory”
has been used in reference
to: (a)
conditioning and reinforcement tasks
skills requiring repeated trials foracquisition

(c) the
conscious recollection to past experiences
(d) none of the above 6.
Changes due to maturation are
excluded from the definition of learning
because: (a)
they may arise from innate forces (b)
they mayinvolve neural growth that occurs at its own
all of the above (d)
none of the above 7.
Schmidt and Bork argue that learning and memory (a)
are entirely separate from one another and cannot be studied together
(b) measure the same thing (c)
cannot be studied because they cannot be observed (d) should be
studied together,as one’s degree of
memory depends on one’s levelof learning 8.When
one learns very quickly at the start of a training period,
but the amount of learning slows down during
later trials,what type of learning
curve is produced? (a)
an “S”shaped curve (b)
a positively accelerated curve
(c) a power curve (d) a negatively
accelerated curve 9.The
ratsin Dr. Smith’s
experiment on maze running took a few trials beforethey
started to
showany learning ability, although this”slow”
early period was followed by a dramatically quick improvement in
performance,followed by a slowi ng down of learn i ng.
Th is data pattern suggests wh ich of the following types of learning curves? (a) an”S”shaped curve (b)
a positively accelerated curve
(c) a power curve (d)
a negatively accelerated curve 10.Dr.
Woods is conducting basic
research on the different types of sensory neurons that carry input to spinal
neurons. Her research on these neurons will most likely lead to an increased
understanding of the biological
nature of: (a) habituation
(b) sensitization (c)
orienting responses (d)
response generalization
describing the nature of the relationship between habituation and
sensitization, Dual- Process theory argues that: (a)
habituation plays a more dominant role in learning than sensitization (b) habituation
may be a more dominant process in some learning situations, but sensitization
may be more dominant in others (c)
sensitization plays a more dominant role in learning than habituation (d)
habituation and sensitization are always
equally balanced in any learning envi ron ment. 12.
Gibson & Walk’s classic perceptual learning experiment found that: (a)
infants exposed to English phonemes demonstrate language skills earlier than
Hindi infants (b)
preexposure to stimuli inhibits later learning
(c) preexposure
to stimuli facilitates later learning(d)
the more one knows about a learning environment, the less one can learn in the
future 13.As
a result of his past experiences with police,whenever
Pat hears a police siren, he expects that he will soon be arrested. This type
of a reaction arises from which model of habituation? (a)
(b) non-learning
(c) cogn
itive (d)
physiological 14.Aplysia
have been used to study the physiological properties of learning because: (a)
they only have one neuron, which makes it easy to see and study
(b) they
only have a few neurons, which are relatively large in size(c)
they have the same number of neurons as humans, so generalizations can be made
from Aplysia to humans (d)
none of the above 15.An
Aplysia’s siphon, when stimulated by touch, withdraws into its body. Repeated
tactile stimulation
produces: (a)
(b) habituation
effector fatigue (d)
response generalization
Aplysia has led to the conclusion that habituation
occurs: (a)
within sensory neurons
(b) within motor neurons (c) at synapses
between neurons
(d) within neuronal receptors 17.In
a classical conditioning
experimenter declares a flash of light to
be the CS,an
electric shock as the US,and a
fear reaction as the UR(as well
CR). The acquisition phase of this experiment would involve presenting: (a)
the shock by itself
(b) the light byitself (c) the light
with the shock
(d) none of the above 18.Using
the situation described above in question #17, an unpaired control condition
would involve: (a)
havi ng the I ight presented after the shock (b)
presenting the light and shock separate from each other
(c) presenting the light and shock at the same time (d)
presenting the light byitself 19.Using
the situation described
above in question #17,a truly random control
condition would
involve: (a)
having the light presented after the shock (b)
always presenting the light and shock in distant temporal orders (c)
the light and shock in
an completely non-correlated manner
(d) presenting the light byitself 2l.After using
classical conditioning to train a child to
stand whenever a teacher calls their name,the
child begins to stand whenever any adults
refer to them. What has occurred? (a)
generalization (b)
spontaneous recovery
(c) extinction (d)
discrimination 22.A
dog is trained to salivate in the presence of a blue light, but not in the
presence of a green light.What
has occurred? (a)
generalization (b)
spontaneous recovery
(c) extinction (d)
discrimination 24.
Once extinction has occurred, previously-learned Pavlovian associations can: (a)
never be recovered (b)
only be recovered if the es and US are presented in close temporal order
be recovered by re-exposure to the es alone (0)
only De recovered If the US is presented 25.____
pairings are effective in producing a es that will elicit conditioned
responses. (a)
(b) backward (c)
all of the above lead to equally strong eRs 26.
Skinner, concerning reinforcement,
made the argument that reinforcers: (a)
only have their reinforcing qualities in their originally-used context
(b) lead to satisfaction (c)
the frequency of the operant response
(d) possess transsituationality 27.
A reinforcer: (a)
does not always lead to satisfaction (c)
decreases the frequency of the operant response (d)
only hasits reinforcing qualitiesin
its originally-used context 28.James
has anintense, physiological desire for a
hamburger. Which of the following approaches could offer the best explanation
for the effect that a hamburger would have on James at this
moment? (a)
incentive motivation

priming (c)
the Premack Principle

(d) drive reduction3l.Theidea
that reinforcers can be behaviors,and not
stimuli, is central to which reinforcement approach? (a)
incentive motivation
(b) brain stimulation (c)
Premack Principie
(d) drive reduction 32.James
loves candy and hates vegetables. However, his father wants to make sure that
James eats his vegetables, since they’re good for him. To ensure vegetable
consumption, James is only allowed to have candy after he has eaten his
vegetables. This situation illustrates the application of: (a)
intrinsic motivation

(b) reinforcer priming (c)
Premack Principle
(d) drive reduction 33.The
idea that reinforcers allow previously-established neural connections to become
stronger is an attempt to connect the concept of reinforcement to: (a)
incentive motivation
(b) memory
(c) biofeedback (d)
drive reduction 37.Which
of the following can be found within the context of Two-Process theory? (a)
(b) helplessness
(c) punishment (d)
all of the above 38.Eric
is trying to teach a pigeon to
peck at a lighted pad in order to avoid receiving a shock whilein
a operant learning chamber, but is finding that the pigeon
is having a difficult time
learning this association. This
problem is expected, according to which theory of avoidance learning? (a)
cognitive (b)
has decided to change her fear of multiple choice
exams by altering her expectancies of what will
happen to her when she takes such a test.Such
an occurrence is a critical element of: (a)
active avoidance
(b) two-process theory
(c) escape learning (d) a cognitive
approach to avoidance 40.
An approach-avoidance conflictinvolves:
having an approach tendency that is stronger than an avoidance tendency
(b) having an approach tendency that is weaker than an avoidance tendency
(c) having
an approach tendency that is equal to an avoidance tendency(d)
not knowing if one should escape or avoid a stimulus 41.
Which of the following is characteristic of an avoidance coping
style? (a)
selective attention
(b) intrusion (c) blunting (d)
sensitization 42.As
a result of taking this test today, you are having
a difficult time recalling the material you studied yesterday, for a test in
tomorrow’s calculus class.The
memory deficit described here illustrates: (a)
retroactive interference
(b) proactive interference
(c) anchoring (d)
remote associations 43.The
stimulus-response nature of learning can be seen
most directlyin which of the following memory tasks? (a)
the serial position effect
(b) proactive interference
(c) anchoring (d)
associate learning45.A
group of children are presented with a list
of 20 words that they are told to remember. upon engaging In a free-recall task
after the list is presented,which of
the following children is likely
to recall the most words? (a) Joe,a lO-year-old boy
(b) Toni,an 8-yearold girl
(c) Susan,a 5-year-old girl
(d) Bob, a 5-year-old boy 46.Which
of the following groups of words has the highest
chance of being recalled perfectly? (a)
cat,automobile, phone,I
garbage, wood,television,
(c) apple,orange, banana,
pear, watermelon
(d) all have equal chances of being recalled 49.
Mary’s knowledge of how to drive a caris
most likely originating from her: (a)
(b) explicit memory (c)
episod ic memory
(d) semantic memory 5l.The
contamination of an implicit memory test with explicit
retrieval can be reduced by: (a)
making sure subjects understand theirimplicit
memory instructions
(b) using subliminal presentations (c)
amnesia patients as subjects(d)
using individuals below the age of 18 in experiments 52.Which
of the following can be taken as evidence thatimplicit
memories arise from a different memory system than explicit
memories? (a)
performance on implicit and explicit tests are positively correlated (b)
differences seem to affect explicit, but not implicit, abilities(c)
experimental treatments tend to have equal effects on implicit and explicit
memory (d)
all of the above 53.
Episodic and semantic LTM
have been suggested to be elements within: (a)
declarative memory(b)
non-declarative memory
(c) working memory (d)
implicit memory 57.As
statedin your text,animal
research shows that animals possess which of the following human-like skills?
(Box 8.1) (a)
STM (b)
control processes
(c) LTM (d)
A and B only 59.
Which of the following is NOT a component of
Working Memory? (a)
phonological loop
(b) central executive (c)
visuospatial sketchpad
(d) sensory
is having a hard time taking
notes in Professor Jones’s class,
because he can’t repeat
the professor’s words fast enough to hold them in his
mind and write them down. Joe’s memory
difficulty is most likely stemming from a difficulty
within which
working memory component? (a)
phonological loop
(b) central executive (c)
visuospatial sketchpad
(d) sensory memory 61.Mary
is at a party,talking
to Tom.However, in the middle of her conversation,
she hears her namementioned
across the room,and
almostimmediately turns her attention to the place
in the room from where she believes she heard her name. The element of Working
Memory most responsible for this shifting of
attention is most likely the: (a)
phonological loop
(b) central
visuospatial sketchpad
(d) sensory memory 63.Mary
suffered a stroke, the result of whichdamaged
the Episodic Buffer of her Working Memory. As a
result, Mary will likely have difficulty when she: (a)
tries to connect the contents of Working Memory to Sensory Memory (b)
to retrieve data from Long Term Memory to use in Working Memory
(c) retain visual images (d)
allocate her attentional skills across a variety of tasks 64.At
the start of his gO-minute lecture on child
development, Professor Mentyl shows his class a 10 minute home video of his own
young children playing with their pet dog. When students later take an exam on
this lecture, Professor Mentyl finds that the students didn’t remember the
details of the critical child development theories that were the focus of the
above lecture. This effect has come to be known as: (a)
the spacing effect (b)
seductive detail effect
(c) the generation effect (d)
verbal overshadowing 67.Mary
finished studying
for her physics exam at lOpm last night.Upon
returning to the library
to continue studying this morning, Mary
found it difficult to focus on the task at hand. This is illustrative of which
explanation of the spacing effect? (a)
encoding variability
(b) retrograde amnesia
(c) attention
deficit (d)
anterograde amnesia 68.John
is studying for his psychology exam on 4 successive nights,
and each night he studies in a different location, at a
different time of day, and comes up with
different examples of the theories he is trying to learn. This is illustrative
of which explanation of the spacing effect? (a) encod i
ng variabi I ity
(b) retrograde amnesia
(c) attention deficit (d)
anterograde amnesia 70.Which
of the following scenarios is most likely to produce the best retention of
studied material, according to the optimal spacing
theory? (a)
periods1day apart from each other, followed by a
test3days later (b)
periods1day apart from each other, followed by a
test4days later (c) spacing2study periods2days apart from
each other, followed by a test10days later(d)
apart from each other,followed by a test5
dayslater 7l.The
generation effect gets its name from: (a)
comparing performances on a memory test between groups from older and younger
generations (b)
forcing an experimenter to generate
stimuli that a subject must attend to
(c) forcing
a subject to generate their own stimuli in a memory experiment
(d) none of the above 72.An
experimenter presents a
subject with the words CAR and
CLOUD. If this was an experiment studying the generation effect, the subject’s
task would involve: (a)
repeati ng the words CAR and CLOU D over and over (b)
counting the number of letters in the words CAR and CLOUD (c)
the letters in the words CAR and CLOUD to form a new word
(d) none of the above 74.To
have the best chance of retrieving information during an exam, students should:
study the examples their teachers used in class
(b) only study in a happy mood (c)
their own examples related to material that was presented in class(d)
study in a room that is different from the room where they’ll
take their exam 76.Since
John drank 10 cups of coffee while studying for his chemistry exam, he drinks
10 more while taking the test in order reinstate the physiological state he was
under while studying. This behavior suggests that John is a firm bel iever in: (a)
d isti nctiveness (b)
encoding specificity
(c) hypermnesia (d)
dependent learning77.Whenever
Julie is sad, she can only remember sad events. In these cases, Julie’s memory
ability seems to be based on: (a)
dependent memory
(b) encoding specificity
(c) hypermnesia (d)
memory 79.While
working at her desk, Mary remembers that it is her turn to cook dinner tonight.
She then writes a quick reminder
note to herself to stop by the supermarket on the way home to pick up some
groceries to use for dinner.
Mary’s actions
here are illustrative of: (a)
encoding specificity
(b) hypermnesia (c)
spreading of activation
(d) prospective
Which of the followingis NOT an
example of prospective memory? (a)
rememberi ng that one has a dentist appoi ntment next week (b)
remembering that one has to pick up one’s
child from football practice tomorrow (c)
that you were sexually abused15years ago, as a child
(d) none of the above Bl.The existence
of partial retrievalis supported by effects. (a)
tip-of-the-tongue and
(b) tip-of-the-tongue and prospective memory
(c) feeling-of-knowing and prospective memory (d)
tip-of-the-tongue, feeling-of-knowing,
and prospective memory 83.The
beliefs and self-knowledge that individuals possess about what they’ve
learned are central to: (a)
knowledge of results (c)
practice-i ndependent learn i ng
(d) implicit learning
The lO-year rule applies to the amount of time
it takes to: (a)
an expert in a given field
(b) extinct conditioned responses (c)
develop implicit learning abilities
(d) become a Psychologist 87.
Implicit learning ability: (a)
can only be used in the context it wasinitially
(b) tends to be impaired in amnesiacs (c)
be transferred to new contexts(d)
only involves motor skill ability 88.Joe,
a normal high
school sophomore, has just started to learn how to play chess, although his
goal is to become a world-class chess expert.Joe
will most likely be able to attain this goal: (a)
few years after he graduates from college
(b) immediately after graduating high school (c)
before he graduates from high school if he practices hard enough (d)
none of the above– either you are born with expert skills or you’re not 89.Huntington’s
and Alzheimer’s patients show patterns of ability across different implicit tests of their
knowledge. (a)
(b) similar
none of the above– these individuals lose their implicit processing skills 90.
Which of the following notions concerning expertise tends to be disputed? (a)
it is afunction
of practice
(b) it
is inherited (c)
proper motivation to become am expertis
essential (d)
experts need to persevere in learning their specific skill 91.
Developmental disabilities
can be caused by: (a)
birth defects
(b) head injury
(c) malnutrition (d) all of the
above 92.
The cognitive impairment of Down Syndromeis
the result of: (a)
lack of formal education
(b) a genetic defect (c)
head injury (d)
malnutrition 93.Barry
has three copies of chromosome 21.Which of
the following tasks will he most likely have d ifficu Ity with?
reciting his telephone number (b)
the correct path though a maze(c)
stating the names of his brothers and sisters

(d) stating the names of his cat
and dog 94.Julie,
a ten year old,hasimpairment
with visual-spatial tasks,but
performs quite well with verbal tasks.Her
diagnosis is most likely: (a)
Dyslexia (b)
Down Syndrome
(c) Williams
(d) all of the above 96.
Learning disabled children tend to exhibit problems with:
memory encoding
(b) memory retrieval
(c) attention (d)
of the above97.While
sitting in class, Jamie,a
lO-year-old girl with a learning
disability, is very distracted,
fidgeting in her chair and not focusing on the lesson being
delivered by the teacher. Which approach is most consistent with Jamie’s behavior?
the comprehension deficit hypothesis
(b) the
attentional deficit hypothesis(c)
disconnection syndrome (d)
classical conditioning 99.Dual-task
experiments using learning-disabled individuals
as participants have suggested that the problems experienced by people with
learning disabilities
is due to a problem with: (a)
(b) retrieval (c)

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