Anxiety and CountryThis study examined differences in anxiety level between an industrial country and anonindustrial country. Anxiety is assessed three wayscognitive, affective, and behavioralwith higher scores indicating higher levels of the anxiety dimensions.Directions:Using the SPSS data file for Module 5 (located in Topic Materials), answer the followingquestions. NOTE: Helpful hints are provided here for you to use while answering thesequestions.1. What is the ONE independent variable in this study? What are the dependent variables?2. Why is a one-way between-subjects MANOVA appropriate to use for this researchdesign?HINT:Consider the number of IVs and the number of DVs for your answer.3. Did you find any errors that the researcher made when setting up the SPSS data file(dont forget to check the variable view)? If so, what did you find? How did you correctit?HINT:YES! The Measures (for scale of measurement) is wrong for each of the 4 variables!You need to indicate what was wrong and what should be the correct measures.4. Perform Initial Data Screening. What did you find regarding missing values, univariateoutliers, multivariate outliers, normality? Although you are not asked to makeadjustments, what should you consider when you find these kinds of outcomes?HINTS:For missing values, see Case Processing SummaryUnivariate outliers: inspect boxplotsMultivariate outliers: Dont forget to create the Case ID variable to do thisanalysis. Then, perform a regression analysis with CaseID as the DV andCountry as the IV in order to compute the Mahalanobis distance measures. Besure to click Save when you are setting up the regression so the regression scoreswill be saved to a new variable (automatically named MAH_1). Then, ExploreMAH_1 scores, remembering to check the Outliers box that is found with Plots.This will give you information about multivariate outliers.Normality:Examine the skewness and kurtosis values for each dependent variable:Examining the histogramsExamine the Shapiro-Wilks results5. Perform a one-way between-subjects MANOVA on the data. Before interpreting theresults of the MANOVA, check outcomes that test other assumptions for this statistic:equality of covariance matrices (see Boxs Test) and sufficient correlation among the DVs(see Bartletts Test of Sphericity). Also check the results of the Levenes Test of Equalityof Error Variances to evaluate that assumption for the univariate ANOVAs that are runand show in the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects output. What have you found aboutwhether the data meet these additional assumptions for the MANOVA and followupANOVAs?HINTS:Be sure to read the instructions very carefully in the textbook forwhat to check to get these results for these tests of assumptions (e.g., you have tocheck Residual SSCP matrix within Options to get the results of the Bartletts Testof Sphericity).Be sure to review what a statistically significant outcome meansfor each test: in some cases, it means a violation, but in others it means anassumption is met.6. What is the outcome of the multivariate tests (which looks at the effects of the IV on allthree DVs at the same time)? Given results of your tests for homogeneity of variancecovariance matrices for the dependent variables, is it more appropriate to use Wilkslambda or Pillais trace to interpret outcomes, or does it make a difference? Report eitherthe Pillais Trace or Wilkss Lambda for your results, as well as the associated F valueand its statistical significance. Use the following format for notation: Pillais Trace ORWilks lambda = ____; F(df, df) = ____, p = ____, 2= _____. What does thisinformation tell you about the difference between the two countries on the linearcombination (the variate) of the dependent variables?Here, and ONLY for a one-way MANOVA with only two groups for the IV, etasquared and partial eta squared are the same value; you can use the value givenfor partial eta squared in the SPSS results of the Multivariate Tests to be etasquared, 2, and save the step of hand calculating 2 .)7. Given the results of the multivariate tests, is it OK now to move on to interpret the resultsof the Tests of Between-Subjects Tests? Why? Explain. If yes, what are the results andwhat do they mean? (Report each of the results using the format of F(df, df) = _____, p =_____ , 2 = _____ for each DV. )8. Citing the results of your statistical analyses, what is the conclusion you can draw (andsupport) regarding research question that was posed in this research (see problemstatement)?HINT: Use the sample results write-up in the textbook to see what you shouldreport and how to say it. Just substitute the correct language and values for theanalyses you have done for this problem.
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