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This Report enforces the private institutions to uphold a certain ethical standard in regards to human subjects research (HHS.gov, 1979). The APA is only entitled to live up to these principles set by the commission, but not entitled to do any follow up investigations of their biomedical research to ensure, develop, and uphold their biosafety and biosecurity of their medical and human subject research. What is interesting about these two policies is that both NIMH and APA must enforce the Belmont Report by law, but since the NIH is a government institution, it is supposed to live up to the new criteria for biosafety and biosecurity. These differences of the policies of biomedical research between governmental and private institutions can be …show more content…
The APA has created what is called a disclosure policy for the DSM panel members working on DSM-5. This policy is supposed to stop financial conflicts of interest from occurring. But there are issues with the disclosure policy that causes a lack of transparency among the panel members. One issue with this is that the new disclosure policy does not call for the disclosure of the particular member’s “speakers’ bureau membership” (Cosgrove and Krimsky, 2012, pp. 2). Being a member of the speakers’ bureau means that you are hired by a commercial entity and you produce a presentation, wherein the agency that hires you typically have a contract saying that they can control what is within the presentation. Instead of disclosing this, panel members can hide this under the term “honoraria.” This means that even with the efforts to increase transparency, there are still ways to allow panel members to get away with having connections to the pharmaceutical industry. Since the panel members could claim “honoraria,” it is unclear how many are actually members of the speakers bureau. When looking into this further, Cosgrove and Krimsky (2012) found that there were 15% of the 141 panel members that were members of the pharmaceutical companies speakers bureau. Another guideline that was excluded from the newly made disclosure policies, was that panel members are allowed to receive $10,000 USD a year from pharmaceutical companies for jobs such as consulting, as well as hold up to $50,000 USD in stock of pharmaceutical companies. Not only can the panel members still work and own stocks, but this disclosure policy does also not require an admission of the amount of money that has been received from the pharmaceutical industry (Cosgrove and Krimsky, 2012). These aspects and the aforementioned are relevant in relation to the governance processes by institutions, because they set the framework of

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