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I have a 100 question tutorial in PSY 501 Developmental Psychology

Multiple Choice
Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Who did developmental researchers focus on studying because
they assumed that the processes of development were universal?

a. Mexicans b. Europeans c. Canadians d. Americans

2. What is the current total fertility rate (TFR) worldwide?

a. 1.4
b. 2.8
c. 4.2
d. 5.6

3. What is probably the oldest known conception of the life
course, written about 3,000 years ago?

a. the
Dharmashastras b. the Bible
c. the Koran d. the Talmud

4. What is Freud’s
theory of human development?

a. bio-sexual theory
b. psychosexual
theory c. sexual stage theory d. libido-drive theory

5. According to the
text, what is a researcher’s idea about one possible answer to the question of

a. a scientific idea
b. a hypothesis
c. a proof d. a law

6. When participants
are provided with specific responses to choose from on a questionnaire, what
type of format is being used?

a. open-ended
question format b. closed-question
c. stream of
consciousness format d. multiple choice

7. What recessive
disorder results in non-normal shaped blood cells that clog up blood vessels
and cause pain, increased susceptibility to disease, and early death?

a. Tay-Sachs b. trisomy-21
c. sickle-cell
anemia d. malaria

8. A person with an
XY pairing of chromosomes is a , whereas a person with an XX pairing of
chromosomes is a .

a. male; female
b. female; male
c. homogenetic
inheritance; polygenetic inheritance d.
polygenetic inheritance; homogenetic inheritance

9. Who are generally
carriers of X-linked disorders?

a. females b. males
c. individuals who
have been exposed to teratogens d.
individuals with a trisomy

10. The structure
that will form the structures that will provide protection and nourishment for
the newly formed organism is the .

a. umbilical cord
b. placenta
c. embryonic disk
d. trophoblast

11. By the end of the
third week the neural tube begins to form. This structure will eventually
become .

a. the skull and
torso b. legs and arms
c. the spinal cord
and brain
d. lungs and the
digestive system

12. Children born
with chromosomal problems are almost always born to parents with .

a. the very same
chromosomal problem b. similar genetic
c. above average
d. no genetic or
chromosomal problems
13. According to the
text, oxytocin is released from the . a. fetus’s liver
b. mother’s uterus
c. fetus’s placenta
d. mother’s
pituitary gland

14. During what stage
is the umbilical cord usually cut and tied?

a. crowning
b. active labor
c. transitional
d. The third stage
of labor

15. Compared to other
animals, the birth process for human beings is complicated by the .
a. size of the infant’s head
b. infant’s muscle
to fat ratio
c. amount of
amniotic fluid expelled
d. mother’s
expectation of the birthing process

16. What are the
“soft spots” on a neonate called?

a. sutures
b. cranium areas
c. fontanels
d. soft spots

17. How long does it
take before the neonate has regained all of the weight that he or she lost
right after birth?

a. 2 weeks b. 3 weeks c.
4 weeks d. 5 weeks

18. For American
infants, what percent are born with an Apgar score of 7 to 10?

a. 52%
b. 64%
c. 76%
d. 98%

19. One way that
neonates’ sleep is distinctive is that they spend a high proportion of their
sleep in .

a. alpha stage sleep
b. a coma-like sleep
c. a position that
is face down
d. rapid eye
movement (REM) sleep

20. In cultures where
babies are held or carried around much of the day .
a. prolonged episodes of crying are
b. prolonged episodes
of crying are rare
c. they cry because
infants need time alone
d. they cry because
they sense that their mothers are frustrated with them

21. Growth and
development proceed from the middle of the body outward, which is known as
the .

a. head first, body
second principle b. cephalocaudal
c. proximodistal
principle d. top-down principle

22. As described in
the text, which of the following are appropriate methods to soothe an infant
who is teething?

a. the use of a teething
ring, a cold drink, or topical pain relievers b. the use of pediatric oral dentures
c. the use of
children’s acetaminophen or ibuprofen d.
the use of a cotton ball that is soaked in whiskey

23. is a tiny gap between neurons. a. A neurotransmitter
b. The synapse
c. A dendrite
d. Myelin

24. When neuronal
connections that are used become stronger and faster and the neuronal
connections that are not used wither away, what is happening?

a. brain death
b. axonal withering
c. synaptic pruning
d. intellectual

25. What is the
leading cause of death for infants between birth and one year of age in
developed countries?

a. accidents b. SIDS
d. genetic disorders

26. An infant between
the ages of birth and 2 would be in which of Piaget’s cognitive stages?

a. sensorimotor
b. preoperational
c. concrete
operations d. formal operations

27. Secondary
circular reactions involve activity in relation to the .
a. infant’s own body
b. parent
c. external world
d. siblings

28. What approach
that attempts to understand cognitive development views development as

information-processing approach b.
behavioral theory
c. Piaget’s
cognitive developmental theory d.
Typological Advancement theory

29. During
toddlerhood children do not need as much of this to maintain a constant body

a. warm clothes
b. mother’s body c. body hair
d. body fat

30. Which of the
following is a protein deficiency that primarily affects toddlers in developing
nations and leads to a range of symptoms such as lethargy, irritability, and
thinning of hair?

a. kwashiorkor
b. micronutrients
c. eczema
d. tuberculosis

31. How many neurons
does the brain contain when the toddler is 2 years old?

a. twice as many as
at birth
b. four times as
many as at birth c. half as many as at
d. the same total
number of neurons

32. Two possible
reasons why toddlers have an increased frequency of waking at night are .
a. teething and an increased sense of
b. increased
physiological response and increased hormone production c. nocturnal enuresis and increased fidgeting
d. decreased
autonomic nervous system and increased parasympathetic response

33. Piaget’s fifth
sensorimotor stage is . a. simple reflexes
b. secondary
circular reactions c. tertiary circular
d. mental

34. is the basis of human language. a. Deferred imitation
b. Mental
c. Unconscious
symbolism d. Object permanence

35. Which of the
following are secondary emotions?

a. sadness, disgust,
and joy b. anger, fear, and happiness
c. shame, guilt, and
embarrassment d. surprise, sadness, and

36. When do children
begin to use personal pronouns for the first time (e.g., “I,” “me,” etc.) and refer to themselves by their own

a. 9 months b. 12 months c. 18 months d. 24 months

37. What percentage
of North American children have at least one dental cavity by age five years?

a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 20%
d. 40%

38. What is the brain
system that is involved in attention?

a. cerebellum
b. hippocampus
c. reticular
formation d. corpus callosum

39. Which of the
following elements is responsible for the growth of strong bones and teeth?

a. calcium b. zinc
c. fluoride
d. potassium

40. What is the name
of the Piagetian substage in which children are first capable of
representational thought and of using symbols to represent the world?

a. formal operations
b. representational
operations c. systematic thought
d. symbolic function

41. What is one of
the criticisms that other cognitive theorists and researchers have regarding
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development during the preoperational stage? They believe that development is
actually much more .

a. vacillating and
not predictable b. stable and rarely
c. stage-like and
less continuous
d. continuous and
much less stage-like

42. Children from
what group in the United States especially benefited cognitively from

a. families who had
parents who were professionals b.
affluent families
c. Midwestern
families d. low-income families

43. What is defined
as the practices that parents exhibit in relation to their children and their
beliefs about these practices?

a. child–parent
b. parenting
learning strategies c. parenting styles
d. discipline

44. In what types of
cultures do parents expect that their authority will be obeyed without question
and without requiring an explanation?

a. Western cultures
b. traditional
c. nontraditional
cultures d. native cultures

45. In middle
childhood physical growth continues at a slow but steady pace. How many inches
per year does the average child gain in height during this time?

a. 2 to 3 inches
b. 5 to 6 inches c. 8 to 9 inches
d. 11 to 12 inches

46. Internationally,
children aged 6 to 10 years are considered to be overweight if .
a. they eat more than 2,000 calories a
b. fail to exercise
for more than 30 minutes per day c. have
a BMI that exceeds 18
d. have 20% or more
body fat

47. In the U.S.,
rates of overweight and obesity are higher in
. a. ethnic minority groups
b. high income
c. first-generation
families d. White American families

48. What Piagetian
concept describes the ability of children to understand that the quantity of an
object has not changed although its shape has?

a. concept shifting
b. critical thinking c. reversibility
d. decentering

49. What is the
disorder referred to when individuals have difficulties in maintaining

a. attention
persistence disorder b. attention
deficit disorder
c. attention control
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

50. What are the
negative side effects of using medication for the treatment of ADHD?

a. slower physical
growth and higher risk of depression
b. lethargy and a
larger appetite that increases the likelihood of obesity c. decreased intelligence and delayed cognitive
d. loss of bone
density and delayed motor coordination

51. Ambivalence
is .

a. two ends of one
b. experiencing two
contradictory emotions at once c. an
unexpected and undesirable emotional state d.
a happy but unexpected surprise

52. What is the term
that is used to describe a person’s perception and evaluation of him- or

a. self-concept
b. self-esteem
c. self-evidence
d. self-comparison

53. By the mid-teens,
testosterone production in males is how many times greater than it was before

a. 8
b. 12
c. 16
d. 20

54. Considerable
thickening of synaptic connections occurs around the time puberty begins during
a process neuroscientists call .

a. overproduction
b. pruning
c. myelination
d. synaptic

55. What is the last
structure of the brain to complete its growth process?

a. cortex
b. cerebellum
c. hypothalamus
d. frontal lobes

56. As described by
Piaget, the child who solves the pendulum task and can explain their rationale
is closer to the stage of cognitive development.

a. sensorimotor
b. preoperational
c. concrete
operations d. formal operations

57. People who
demonstrate the capacity for formal operations tend to use it selectively,
for .
a. problems and situations that involve
social cognitive reasoning and social
cognitive problem-solving
b. problems and
situations that involve low to moderate creativity and ingenuity
c. problems and
situations in which they have the most experience and knowledge d. problems and situations that involve
personal consequences

58. Which of the
following are the two keys to cognition in the information processing approach?

a. attention and
b. neural growth and
synaptic connections c. parietal and
occipital lobes
d. visual images and
the management of cognitive load

59. Comparing
preadolescent 5th graders to adolescent 8th graders, Larson and Richards (1994)
found that the percentage of time participants experienced
as “very happy” .

a. increased by 60%
b. increased by 20% c. decreased by 30% d. decreased by 50%

60. David Gilmore
(1990) concluded that in most cultures an adolescent boy must demonstrate three
capacities before he can be considered a man. What are the three capacities?

a. perform, promote,
and prosper b. proud, perfect, and
c. proficient, pure,
and political
d. provide, protect,
and procreate

61. What are five
characteristics that distinguish emerging adulthood from other age periods?

a. It is the age of
identity explorations, instability, being self-focused, feeling in- between,
and possibilities.
b. It is the age of
stability, being other-focused, identity diffusion, feeling in- between, and
c. It is the age of
identity moratorium, stability, feeling marginalized, being self- focused, and
developing a global worldview.
d. It is the age of
instability, being other-focused, identity foreclosure, feeling marginalized,
and possibilities.

62. The time period
of emerging adulthood is more likely to be a part of ,
and absent in . a. developed countries;
undeveloped countries
b. undeveloped
countries; developed countries c.
collective cultures; individualistic cultures d. individualistic cultures; collective

63. Cardiac output
peaks in which of the following time periods of life?

a. childhood
b. adolescence
c. emerging
adulthood d. middle adulthood

64. Which of the
following best describes pragmatism?

a. using language
and mental images as a basis for problem-solving on tangible concrete items
b. coordinating
sensory modalities with motor skills as a basis for an individual’s perception
of his or her world
c. applying rigid
logical thought to solve real-life situations that contain complexities and
d. adapting logical
thought to solve practical real-life situations that contain complexities and

65. is often seeing situations and issues in
polarized terms—an act is either right or wrong, with no in-between; a
statement is either true or false, regardless of the nuances or the situation
to which it is being applied.

a. Dualistic
b. Situational judgments
Relative-hypothesis testing d.
Concrete thought

66. What type of
education or training program takes place beyond secondary school?

a. primary education
b. tertiary education
c. quaternary
education d. technical education

67. A(n) occurs
when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result
of being a member of a particular group.

a. stereotype
b. discrimination
c. negative
d. unconscious

68. The collapse of
communism began in Eastern Europe in 1989 and was initiated by .
a. individuals in their late teens
b. individuals in
emerging adulthood c. individuals in
middle adulthood
d. individuals in
late adulthood

69. What do emerging
adults in Korea and China view as the most important criterion that signals

a. completing
military service
b. supporting a
family financially
c. being able to
support their parents financially d.
emotional self-control

70. In traditional
cultures the collectivistic value of is more highly prized than the
individualistic value of .

a. self-promotion;
assertiveness b. assertiveness;
c. independence;
interdependence d. interdependence; independence

71. What do about 30%
to 50% of Western and Asian women do to their hair during young adulthood?

a. cut it very short
for convenience b. color or dye it
c. replace it with
wigs and hair pieces d. nothing

72. Although the body
of research on IQ showing a relation between IQ and adult career success is
large, nearly all of it is concentrated .

a. in developed
b. in non-Western
c. solely in the
United States
d. exclusively
outside of the United States

73. For Piaget, the
culmination of cognitive maturation is the attainment of formal operations
around age .

a. 11
b. 18
c. 20
d. 25

74. What type of love
involves feelings of closeness and emotional attachment?

a. intimacy
b. commitment
c. passion
d. desire

75. What type of love
characterizes most friendships and involves intimacy without passion or

a. liking
b. infatuation
c. empty love
d. romantic love

76. What type of love
integrates passion, intimacy, and commitment? This type of love represents the
ideal for many people.

a. romantic love
b. companionate love
c. fatuous love
d. consummate love

77. During middle
adulthood, which of the following is more likely to experience hair thinning
and baldness?

a. a male of
European descent
b. a female of
European descent c. a male of Asian
d. a female of Asian

78. What are the tiny
hairs in the inner ear known as?

a. tympanic hairs
b. incus, stapes,
and malleus c. cilia
d. hearing hairs

79. At what age does
menopause usually occur?

a. between 20 and 30
years of age b. between 30 and 40 years
of age c. between 40 and 50 years of
age d. between 50 and 60 years of age

80. Who was the
theorist who first described fluid and crystallized intelligence?

a. Raymond Cattell
b. Jean Piaget
c. Alfred Binet
d. Robert Sternberg

81. represents the accumulation of a person’s
culturally based knowledge, language, and understanding of social conventions.

a. G-intelligence
b. Crystallized
intelligence c. Fluid intelligence
d. Multiple

82. The results of
the Seattle Longitudinal Study indicate that
is a period when many aspects of
intelligence reach their peak.

a. early adulthood
b. young adulthood c. midlife
d. late life

83. At what period in
the lifespan is contentment with the self the highest?

a. emerging
adulthood b. young adulthood
c. middle adulthood
d. late adulthood

84. A cross-sectional
study of American adults from their late teens to their seventies found similar
enhancements in self-development in middle adulthood. Which of the following
are qualities of self that increased with age?

a. self compliance,
self-mastery, and the empathetic self b.
self acceptance, economy, and environmental mastery
c. the self as man,
the self as a woman, and the self as androgynous d. the I-self, the me-self, and the we-self

85. In Asian
cultures, the tradition of filial piety is

a. obedience and
respect to parents, no matter how old they are b. honor and trust to everyone in the family
c. loyalty to the
laws and codes of society
d. commitment to
one’s family and their village

86. Countries that
have a birth rate that is below 2.1 children per woman .
a. will see a decline in their total
b. will see an
increase in the total population
c. will see a
leveling off in their total population d.
are unable to predict population values

87. What is the ratio
of the number of person aged 65 years or older to the number of person aged 20
to 64 years in Japan?

a. 25%
b. 35%
c. 45%
d. 55%

88. The is
a classic psychology experiment in which people are asked to indicate the color
of a word flashing on a screen, but the word itself presents contrary

a. Stroop test
b. Myers-Briggs
c. Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality Inventory d.

89. Which of the
following best describes working memory?

a. memory for
information currently the focus of your attention b. memories that are stored in the cerebral
c. memories that are
below one’s level of awareness
d. memories for
simplistic motor skills that are stored in the cerebellum

90. The cerebellum
is ,
whereas the frontal lobes are .

a. responsible for
planning and judgment; involved in balance and coordination b. involved in balance and coordination;
responsible for planning and judgment c.
responsible for auditory and visual processing; involved in sensory and
d. involved in
sensory and motor skills; responsible for auditory and visual processing

91. According to
Erikson, ego involves looking back on one’s life and accepting the outcome of
it; whereas, ego entails regrets and bitterness about the course of
one’s life, and a conclusion that it has not gone well and now cannot be

a. inferiority;
mistrust b. mistrust; inferiority
c. integrity; despair
d. despair;

92. According to
Carstensen, at late adulthood, the goals that people have for their social
relationships are .

a. knowledge-based
b. emotions-based c. task-based
d. conflict-based

93. Until the past
century, was the life stage with the highest mortality rates. a. the prenatal period
b. infancy
c. toddlerhood
d. early childhood

94. Which of the
following dramatically reduced death rates due to infectious diseases during
20th century?

a. access to health
care, health insurance, and better trained physicians b. economic wealth, improvements in medicine,
and the automobile
c. vaccinations,
antibiotics, and better sanitation
d. better
nutritional foods, vaccinations, and antibiotics

95. In developed
countries deaths under age 5 years are rare and occur most often due to .
b. infectious
diseases c. accidents
d. abuse

96. In developed
countries most people die in . a. a
b. home
c. hospice care
d. a nursing home

97. Where does
hospice care commonly occur?

a. in a hospital
b. in a cancer
center c. at home
d. in a nursing home

98. Despite the
evidence of the advantages of the hospice approach, currently, only about of
deaths in the United States involve a hospice program.

a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 30%
d. 40%

99. Even in early
childhood, most children understand that death is ;
however, for most children it is not until middle childhood that they realize
that death is .

a. discussable;
avoidable b. avoidable; discussable
c. inevitable; permanent d. permanent; inevitable

100. Anxiety about
one’s death is highest at .

a. emerging
adulthood b. young adulthood
c. middle adulthood
d. late


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