21. Three of the following suggestions are apt to be helpful when teachers work withstudents andtheir parents. With the textbook’s discussion of parenting styles inmind, choose the strategythat is apt to be counterproductive.a. Keep in mind that many parents from Asian cultures effectively combine elements ofauthoritative and authoritarian parenting.b. Acknowledge that authoritarian methods may be quite appropriate if families live indangerous neighborhoods.c. Point out that parents who use authoritarian methods may be causing some of theirchildren’s behavior problems.d. Keep in mind that many children do well in school despite less-than-optimal parentingat home.styles22. Which one of the following should you definitely do if you suspect that one of yourstudents isthe victim of abuse or neglect at home?a. Temporarily lower your expectations for the student’s academic performance untilconditions at home seem to improve.b. Spend some one-on-one time with the student in an effort to get him or her to confideyou.inc. Keep a close eye on the student over the next few weeks, looking for additional evidencethat either supports or disconfirms your suspicions.d. Immediately report your suspicions to a school administrator or social services.23. Three of the following teachers are socializing their students in the way that schoolstypicallydo. Which teacher is not socializing students in a typical fashion?a. Ms. Allen insists that her students complete their independent seatwork before they go torecess.b. Ms. Bernetti has her students go to lunch by rows, letting the quietest rows go first.c. Ms. Dobson suggests that Sean bang his fist against the wall a few times whenever hegets frustrated.d. Ms. Castanza does not permit her students to talk back to her in a disrespectful fashion.24. Three of the following tend to be fairly stable personality traits that children have tovaryingdegrees. Which one would psychologists not characterize as a relativelystable personality trait?a. how dependable children are in doing their work carefully and following through on assignedtasksb. how outgoing and friendly children are with their peersc. how quickly children solve math problemsd. how often children have negative emotions such as anger or depression 25. Given what we know about the development of sense of self, three of the followingare likelyscenarios. Which scenario is not likely to occur?a. Mike vacillates between thinking of himself as being very smart and as being extremelystupid.b. Aaron thinks that kids his age don’t like him, so he spends most of his spare time withparents.hisc. Daniel knows he has many friends, but he wishes he were a better student.d. Rex knows he’s good in math and science but thinks of himself as a total klutz when itcomes to sports.1. Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about group differencesamong students?a. When we have knowledge about typical group differences, we have a very good idea ofhow individual students are likely to perform in the classroom.b. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know theirgender, but not when we know their ethnic background.c. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know theirethnic background, but not when we know their gender.d. The average for two groups may be different, but variability within each group keeps usfrom predicting individual performance.2. Ten-year-old Svana has recently immigrated from Iceland to the United States. If wesay that Svana is undergoing acculturation, we mean that she is:a. refusing to speak any English at school.b. afraid to engage in social activities with her American peers.c. adopting some American behaviors and attitudes.d. maintaining all of the customs of her homeland.3. Three of the following are likely to give you reasonable clues about a student’s culturalbackground and/or ethnic group membership. Which one is probably least dependableas an indicator of a student’s cultural background and ethnicity?a. the color of a student’s skinb. what language is most often spoken at homec. the ethnicity of the student’s parentsd. the cultural and religious activities in which a student regularly participates4. Which one of the following is the best example of playing the dozens? a. Jameel says to Ronald, “Your momma’s so fat her picture takes two frames.” Ronaldresponds, “Yeah? Well, your momma’s so fat it took three cows to make her a pair of shoes.”b. Helena tells her friend Mary that Wendy has been saying unkind things behind Mary’s back.She then goes to Wendy and tells her that Mary has been saying unkind thingsbehind herback.c. Tariq devoutly follows Muslim practices (e.g., praying five times a day, fasting duringRamadan) on weekends and school holidays, but he tries to behave as his Americanclassmates do on days when he attends school.d. When Alegria finishes her own classwork, she goes to the assistance of classmates whoappear to be struggling with theirs.5. A student says to you, “My momma, she be singin’ all da time.” This student appearsto:a. have a speech disorder that sometimes results from environmental toxins (e.g.,paint).b. have had little exposure to language during a critical period in her languagelead-baseddevelopment.c. be using African American English, a dialect with some grammatical constructionsfrom those of Standard English.differentd. have grown up in Northern Ireland and so is using idioms typical of that country.6. Three of the following alternatives describe reasons why, for cultural reasons, childrenmay be relatively quiet in class. Which alternative is false?a. In some cultures, children rarely hear spoken language until age 3 or 4.b. Children from some cultural backgrounds may have been taught that it’s rude to initiateconversation with an adult.ac. In some cultures, attentive listening is valued more highly than speaking.d. In some cultural groups, children are accustomed to learning more from quietthan from asking questions.observation7. Psychologists believe that intelligence is culture-specific—that “intelligent” behaviorin one culture is not necessarily intelligent behavior in a different culture. Three of thefollowing are aspects of intelligence, regardless of the culture in which it is found.Which one is probably related to intelligence in some cultures but not in others?a. learning how to perform a new task quicklyb. doing well in academic classroom activitiesc. adapting readily to new situationsd. applying prior knowledge to new situations 8. Robert is a 15-year-old boy who has attended U.S. schools since he begankindergarten at age 5. With this fact in mind, identify the task that is most likely torequire Robert’s fluid intelligence rather than his crystallized intelligence.a. applying algebra to a mathematical word problemb. solving a new kind of puzzlec. writing a persuasive essay on a current issue in the newsd. finding Egypt on a map9. Sam is a very talented dancer; he also shows considerable creativity in art class. Hefinds math and science classes very difficult, but he loves to read and tell stories to hismany friends. Which view of intelligence is best reflected in Sam’s abilities?a. Piaget’s theory of cognitive developmentb. Gardner’s multiple intelligencesc. Sternberg’s triarchic theory d. distributed intelligence10. Which one of the following statements best reflects Sternberg’s triarchic theory ofintelligence?a. Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people draw on their prior experiences andcognitively process information in order to adapt to their particular environmental situation.b. Intelligent behavior evolves in three stages: preoperational thought, concrete thoughtabstract thought.andc. To be truly intelligent, one must show competence in critical thinking and appropriateclassroom behavior, as well as in traditional academic tasks.d. Intelligence is due to heredity, environment, and a complex interaction between the two;ultimately, researchers will probably never be able to separate the relative effects of heredityand environment.11. Which one of the following statements most accurately reflects the concept ofdistributedintelligence?a. How intelligent students are is, to some extent, a function of class size; studentsat lower levels when they are in larger classes.b. Students almost invariably perform at higher levels in some academic subject areasthey do in others.achievethanc. How intelligent children become is, to some extent, a function of the number of siblingshave; children from larger families tend to have slightly lower IQ scores.d. Students can behave more intelligently when they can use outside resources as well astheir minds.12. “A child’s ability to behave intelligently may vary considerably, depending on theparticularcontext, skills, and cognitive processes required by a given task.” Thisthey statement is consistentWith which one is it leastwith three of the following conceptualizations of intelligence.consistent?a. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligencesb. Sternberg’s triarchic theoryc. the concept of distributed intelligenced. Cattell’s concept of fluid intelligence13. Three of the following are examples of learned behavior. Given the textbook’sdefinition oflearning, which behavior probably does not reflect learning?a. After many hours of heated debate, Brian begins to modify his religious beliefs.b. Cara suddenly recognizes how the division fact “24 ÷ 4 = 6” is related to thefact “6 × 4 = 24.”multiplicationc. David has been running away from German shepherds ever since he was bitten by aGerman shepherd two years ago.d. Abigail cries when she feels sad.14. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes behaviorists’ viewof howlearning can best be studied?a. To study learning scientifically, researchers must confine their investigations to animalresearch in a laboratory setting.b. The study of learning will be more objective and scientific if only observable events areconsidered.c. Asking people to describe what they’re thinking as they study is likely to yield the mostaccurate results.d. Psychologists can determine how learning occurs only if they can identify itsbasis.physiological15. Which one of the following statements best characterizes cognitive psychology’sapproach tolearning?a. Students are most likely to learn the things they think they will be reinforced forlearning.b. Students learn through a series of either-or decisions similar to how computers operate.c. Students’ learning is a function of what they do, mentally, with the information theyreceive.d. Students’ learning is a function of how stimuli in the environment are organized andsequenced.16. Which one of the following researchers is drawing an inference about cognitiveprocesses fromher observations of behavior? a. Dr. Aragon finds that students who listen to an organized lecture remember moreinformation than students who listen to an unorganized lecture; she concludes that organizedmaterial promotes better learning.b. Dr. Cooper discovers that students remember more when new concepts are illustrated bypictures as well as being verbally described; she concludes that visual imagery helps learningand memory.c. Dr. Burger finds that students who learn information word for word don’t remember it forvery long; she concludes that requiring students to learn information verbatim isn’t an effectiveteaching strategy.d. Dr. Delgado finds that students who listen to foreign language tapes while sleeping don’tremember what they’ve heard; she concludes that being awake is necessary for learning tooccur.17. As human beings, we encounter a great many stimuli at any one time. Which one ofthefollowing most accurately reflects cognitive psychologists’ perspective abouthow we respond toall these stimuli?a. We cannot remember everything, and we have little control over the things that we doremember.b. We must select the things we think are most important to learn and remember, andthe rest.ignorec. We remember virtually everything we experience, but we have difficulty retrieving mostd. By learning to use effective long-term memory storage processes, we can eventuallyto remember almost everything we encounter.of it.begin18. When cognitive psychologists talk about the process of “putting” things in memory, theyoftenuse the term:a. inference-drawing.b. retrieval.c. selectivity.d. storage.19. Many cognitive psychologists believe that learning and understanding are oftenconstructivein nature. Three of the following scenarios illustrate such construction.Which scenario doesnot necessarily involve construction in learning?a. When George reads about the Vietnam War in his history book, he comes to theconclusion that the United States should never have gotten involved in Southeast Asia.b. Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their multiplication tables every day. After amonth of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic multiplication facts quickly and easily.c. Because the word photosynthesis begins with photo, Jeremy guesses that it must havesomething to do with taking photographs. d. Although no one has ever told her so, Peggy thinks that the night sky is a big blackcovering the earth and that the blanket has tiny holes through which the stars shine.blanket20. Mr. Janus tells his class, “For tomorrow’s class, read pages 23 to 49 in yourgeography book.”Three of the following students are demonstrating the process ofconstruction in theirperceptions of what their teacher has said. Which student isnot?a. Christopher “hears” the teacher say “pages 33 to 39” because the student next to himcoughing loudly.isb. Anthony thinks the teacher is saying “history book.”c. Bonita doesn’t hear what the teacher says because she’s thinking about something else.d. Dena understands the teacher even though the teacher speaks with a slight accent andmispronounces the word geography.21. Michael has just written a short research paper that describes the events surroundingthe firsttransatlantic telegraph cable. As he rereads his paper before giving it to histeacher, he doesn’tnotice that he has misspelled Atlantic as “Altantic” on oneoccasion, even though he knowsperfectly well how the word should be spelled.Michael’s proofreading error can best beexplained by considering the role of__________ in the construction of meaning.a. a scriptb. expectationsc. assessmentd. ambiguity22. Morris is trying to remember how to spell the word broccoli. He retrieves the firstthree letters(B R O) and the last three (O L I), then assumes that the “kuh” sound inthe middle of theword must be a K. He writes “brokoli” on his paper. Morris’ processof remembering how tospell the word (in this case, incorrectly) illustrates which oneof the following concepts?a. verbal mediationb. a scriptc. construction in retrievald. a retrieval cue23. Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of socialconstructivism?a. Two students discuss possible interpretations of the proverb, “We only know the worth ofwater when the well is dry.” b. When a student borrows a classmate’s marker without asking and then forgets to put thecap back on, leaving it dried out and useless by the following morning, her teacher remindsher of one of the class rules: “Respect your classmates’ property.”c. Four students in a study group divide a reading assignment into four sections. Eachstudent reads a section and then teaches the material to the other group members.d. A teacher assigns a laboratory activity using cumbersome equipment that students canoperate successfully only by working in pairs.24. Distributed cognition can best be described as a:a. group of students thinking about a task or problem together.b. student trying to accomplish several different tasks simultaneously.c. group of students dividing up the various parts of a task that need to be done.d. student choosing one problem-solving strategy over other possible strategies.25. Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of distributedcognition?a. Rhonda watches her favorite situation comedy while simultaneously eating an apple anddoing her homework.b. Edie, Linda, and DeWayne discuss various ways they might solve a physics problem.c. Mark, Jason, and Leanne each solve one-third of their homework problems and thentheir results with the other two.d. Reginald thinks about the various plots he might use in the short story he is writing andeventually chooses one of them.sharethen1. Weston is working on a science project and wants to make his papier-mâché volcano“erupt.” He remembers that when his mother combined vinegar and baking soda whilefollowing a recipe, the batter foamed up as she added the vinegar. So he tries mixingvinegar and baking soda in his volcano and the mixture bubbles. Weston is showing___________ transfer.a. negativeb. generalc. specificd. intuitive2. Mary is majoring in drama. Mary’s parents want her to study advanced mathematics asa way of strengthening her mind; with a stronger mind, they argue, she will be able tolearn her lines more easily when she is rehearsing for a play. Based on their reasoning,which one of the following perspectives of transfer do Mary’s parents hold?a. formal discipline b. specific transferc. situated cognitiond. information processing3. Which one of the following recommendations is consistent with current beliefs abouttransfer?a. “Study German so you’ll have an easier time learning Japanese next year.”b. “Studying calculus will help you think more abstractly about the various subjects youstudy in college.”willc. “Take computer programming to help you develop your analytical thinking skills.”d. “Use your knowledge of algebra to solve this chemistry equation.”4. Considering the textbook’s views on general transfer, which one of the following ismost likely to transfer across very different situations?a. the ability to remember complex ideas b. the ability to take good notes on a lecture c. theability to memorize a poem d. the ability to be creative5. Three of the following are accurate statements about factors that affect transfer. Whichstatement is inaccurate?a. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they see it asto a particular academic subject area.“belonging”b. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have studied itlengthy period of time.for ac. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned it inmeaningful, rather than rote, fashion.ad. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learnedgeneral principles rather than specific facts.6. In which one of the following situations are we most likely to find transfer from onelearning task to the other?a. Brianne learns how to plant corn and then learns how to prune a hedge.b. Alice learns how to add two-digit numbers and then studies how to add three-digitnumbers.c. Devlin learns how to play softball and then learns how to play a card game.d. Cathy learns early British history and then learns early Japanese history.7. A police officer visits Ms. Duhaime’s first-grade class one morning to talk about safetyprecautions at home and on the street. The students listen quietly and attentively whilethe officer speaks. At the end of the visit, the officer and teacher agree that thestudents’ good behavior warrants some kind of reinforcement. Given what we knowabout effective reinforcers at different grade levels, their best choice would be: a. a letter home to parents describing the children’s good behavior.b. plastic toy police “badges” awarded by the officer.c. an official-looking “good behavior” certificate given at the school’s award ceremony thefollowing week.d. twenty minutes of free time at the end of the day.8. If you wanted to encourage kindergartners to delay gratification, you would be mostlikely to:a. occasionally remind them that they will get a bigger reward by waiting a couple of hours.b. tell them that how well they behave at the end of the day is what really counts.c. talk about how their learning efforts today will pay off in the years to come.d. ask them to focus on how good it feels to do something nice for a classmate.9. Alex loses his best friend, Tyler, after he tattles on Tyler at recess. Alex learns thattattling on friends is not a good idea. The loss of Tyler’s friendship is an example of:a. negative reinforcement.b. removal punishment.c. presentation punishment.d. positive reinforcement.Unit 3 Examination10. Linda wears bell-bottom pants to school and her classmates tease her about them. Assoon asshe gets home, Linda throws the pants in the trash. Linda’s being teased isan example of:a. negative reinforcement.b. reinforcement of an incompatible behavior.c. removal punishment.d. presentation punishment.11. Only one of the following consequences has been shown to be an effective andappropriatepunishment for most students. Which one is it?a. suspension from schoolb. scoldingc. embarrassment in front of classmatesd. extra homework12. When Rochelle has an on-the-road lesson as part of her driver education class, shefails tostop at a school crossing zone, as is required by law. Her instructor has her drive aroundthe block several times and stop each time at the crossing zone. He alsoinsists that, onceshe has stopped, she must wait at least eight seconds beforeproceeding. The instructor’sstrategy illustrates the use of __________ as a way ofchanging her behavior.a. response costb. a logical consequencec. intermittent reinforcementd. positive-practice overcorrection13. Considering what we know about the kinds of models people are likely to imitate, wecan guessthat the girls in our classes will be least likely to imitate:a. Brianne, head majorette in the school band.b. Anita, a skillful auto mechanic.c. Darla, a graceful dancer.d. Claudia, the most popular girl in school.14. From the perspective of social cognitive theory, why might inner-city AfricanAmerican studentslearn more from an African American model who grew up in aghetto than from a model of adifferent race or background?a. because the students will view the African American model’s behavior as beingto their own situationapplicableb. because the students are more likely to realize that the African American model hasprestigec. because the African American model is more likely to behave in a gender-appropriatemannerd. because the students are more likely to perceive the African American model as beingcompetent15. Social cognitive theorists propose that three of the following are essential forstudents to learnsuccessfully from models. Which one is not essential?a. attention to the modelb. reinforcement for good performancec. motivation to perform the behaviord. memory of the observed behavior16. Only one of the following definitely illustrates high self-efficacy. Which one is the bestexampleof self-efficacy?a. Carmen enjoys being with her friends.b. Bryn swims the fastest butterfly on the swim team. c. Amy recently got a score of 120 on an intelligence test.d. Danielle knows she is a good singer.17. In what way does self-efficacy differ from the term self-concept?a. Self-efficacy results primarily from vicarious reinforcement and punishment.b. Self-efficacy varies depending on the specific task to be performed.c. Self-efficacy refers only to behaviors that people learn through modeling.d. Self-efficacy appears only after people begin to regulate their own behavior.18. Jim has a high sense of self-efficacy regarding his ability to work with wood. Basedon thisinformation, we would predict three of the following from social cognitivetheory. Which one ofthe following would we not necessarily predict?a. Jim will be a bit careless when he works with wood, so he will often make silly littlemistakes.b. Jim will frequently choose activities that involve working with wood.c. Compared to Joe, who has low self-efficacy, Jim will do a better job at woodworkingd. If Jim has difficulty at a task requiring his woodworking skills, he will tend to “try, tryuntil he gets it right.tasks.again”19. Identify the student who appears to have a mastery goal rather than a performancegoal.a. When Abby gets a new assignment, she likes to set it aside for a day or so before sheactually begins to work on it.b. When given the choice between taking an easy class or a more challenging one, Danachooses the chall…
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