Your objetive is to full interpret and summarize the results of a one-way ANOVA and its corresponding post-hoc analyses. Before you begin this assignment, read the background and data information below to complete the Data “Analysis” worksheetI CAN ONLY OFFER 14 HOURS AS MAXIMUM FOR THIS ONE.
Since the inception of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001, the United States has deployed over
1.64 million troops to Afghanistan and Iraq as a means to fight the global war on terrorism.
These military operations are unique in that they have resulted in fewer casualties and physically
wounded soldiers as compared to previous U.S. wars, such as Vietnam and Korea. Another
distinctive aspect of these wars is that soldiers are experiencing what has been coined “invisible
wounds,” such as mental illness and cognitive impairment as a result of combat experience.
Current research indicates that of all the veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, 21.8%
meet the diagnostic criterion for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 17.7% meet the
diagnostic criterion for depression, and 36.9% meet the diagnostic criterion for other mental
health conditions; however, only 23-40 percent are seeking treatment.
One explanation for the lack of health care seeking is veterans’ fear of the social stigma associated with a psychiatric
diagnosis. Social stigma is the severe disapproval of or discontent with a person on the grounds of characteristics
that distinguish them from other members of a society. Stigmatization of mental illness is real and has been
associated with problems obtaining housing, health care, and employment, as well as problems in relationships with
friends and family. A veteran with a psychiatric diagnosis such as PTSD or depression may experience
discrimination, as there is a long history of stereotyping and prejudice towards those with mental illness. If the
veteran is cognizant of mental illness stigma, this may negatively impact self-esteem and subsequent health seeking
A group of researchers performed a study to determine whether a veteran with a psychiatric diagnosis such as PTSD
or depression may experience more discrimination when compared to a veteran diagnosed with a physical disorder
such as chronic back pain (taken from Daoud, M. (2009). Stigmatization of Iraq veterans.) Participants were
randomly assigned to either a) read a vignette of a veteran suffering from chronic back pain, b) read a vignette of a
veteran suffering from major
depressive disorder, or c) read a vignette of a veteran suffering from
PTSD. The vignettes were totally the same, other than that the name of the condition was
changed. They then completed a Social Distance survey (shown below) to evaluate whether
participants had a greater desire for social distance from veterans suffering from PTSD as well as
veterans suffering from major depression when compared to veterans with chronic back pain.
The researchers predicted the participants would have a greater desire for social distance from
veterans suffering from either PTSD or depression, when compared to a veteran suffering from
Description of veteran suffering from PTSD: John is a private in the army and returned home from Iraq 6 months
ago. During his tour of duty he experienced
a considerable amount of combat exposure. One month
after arriving home he began having flashbacks from combat as if he never left. He began feeling
nervous and agitated, and fears about his family’s safety consume him. He walks around his
house at night checking the locks on the windows and doors. John also has had trouble sleeping
at night, waking with nightmares about his combat experiences. He stopped meeting with his
friends from the army because they remind him of his traumatic experiences in Iraq. John is
suffering from feelings of emptiness and detachment: his family and friends are growing
concerned, but he doesn’t feel like talking. John has been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress
Description of veteran suffering from major depressive disorder: John is a private in the army and returned home
from Iraq 6 months ago. During his tour of duty he experienced a considerable amount of combat exposure. For the
past month John has been feeling depressed. He wakes up in the morning with a flat, heavy feeling that sticks with
him all day long and isn’t enjoying things the way he normally would. Even when good things happen, they don’t
seem to make him happy. He pushes through his days, but even the smallest tasks are difficult to accomplish. He
finds it hard to concentrate on anything. Even though John feels tired, when night comes he can’t go to sleep. He
feels worthless and discouraged. His family has noticed that he hasn’t been himself and that he has pulled away from
them, but he doesn’t feel like talking. John has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder.
Description of veteran suffering from chronic back pain: John is a private in the army and returned home from Iraq
6 months ago. During his tour of duty he experienced a considerable amount of combat exposure. For the
past month John has been experiencing pain in his back. The injury was sustained while deployed in Iraq by a
roadside bomb. Since the initial injury, the pain comes and goes. The more stress he experiences the more his back
hurts. The pain has been interfering in his work so he has been put on light duty and has had to miss several days
because of the pain. Additionally, John’s back pain has minimized his ability to do chores around the house, care for
his children, and forced him to discontinue his usual recreational activities, causing him to feel frustrated and
worthless. Although the pain causes him great distress, he doesn’t feel like talking about it: family and friends are
growing more concerned about John. John has been diagnosed with chronic back pain disorder.
Social Distance scale (high total scores on the scale = less desire for social distance, low total scores = greater
desire for social distance).
1 = Very unwilling
2= Somewhat unwilling
3 = Somewhat willing
4 = Very willing
How willing would you be to work with a person like John?
How willing would you be to move next door to a person like John?
How willing would you be to make friends with a person like John?
How willing would you be to recommend a person like John for a job?
How willing would you be to accept your child to marry a person like John?
How willing would you be to rent a room to a person like John?
How willing would you be to trust a person like John to care for your child?
ONEWAY social_distance_score BY vignette_read /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /MISSING ANALYSIS
N of Rows in Working Data
Missing Value Handling
Definition of Missing
User-defined missing values are treated
Statistics for each analysis are based on
cases with no missing data for any
variable in the analysis.
ONEWAY social_distance_score BY
95% Confidence Interval for
Lower Bound Upper Bound
Post Hoc Tests
95% Confidence Interval
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
Name the IV in the study, and its levels.
Is the design of this experiment independent-samples (aka between subjects) or related-samples
Name the DV in the study and how it is being measured.
What is the research hypothesis for the study described?
Now, use the SPSS output to answer the questions that follow (assume = .05).
Why is a one-way ANOVA appropriate for analyzing this data (as opposed to a two-way ANOVA or a ttest, for example)?
Identify the following values:
n for each of the 3 conditions:
M and SD for each of the 3 conditions:
From the ANOVA: df, F-value and p-value (SPSS calls this ‘Sig’):
Look at your p-value. Is your result significant? Is the null hypothesis retained or rejected?
Write in the names of the 2 groups that were being compared in each post-hoc test, and the
significance (p-value, called “Sig” in SPSS) information for each.
Identify which of the post-hoc comparisons produced significant results.
Now, fully interpret the results of the ANOVA, and all 3 post-hoc analyses (use the website I showed
you in class last week to do this: link is posted on BB).
Briefly think of and describe an interesting, meaningful 4th condition that could be added to the design
of this experiment.
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