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Objectives
· Investigate the process of Natural Selection using the Peppered Moth as the example
· Analyze population trends
· Understand the effect of human impacts on the living world.
NGSS: 3-LS4-2.Use evidence to construct an explanation for how the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing
· LS4.B: Natural SelectionSometimes the differences in characteristics between individuals of the same species provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing. (3-LS4-2)
Introduction
Between 1831 and 1836 Charles Darwin, a naturalist, sailed around the world as a member of a British scientific expedition. During the trip he made observations about the natural world and collected numerous species of plants and animals. These observations led to a book called The Origin of the Species, where he proposed The Theory of Natural Section. Darwin suggests that “those individuals who possess superior physical, behavioral, or other attributes are more likely to survive than those which are not so well endowed” (a.k.a. survival of the fittest).
One example of an advantage that leads to survival of the fittest is camouflage. The term camouflage means to conceal by disguise. There are many examples in nature of animals that hide from predators. Chameleons are known for their ability to alter their skin color to blend in with the leaves and plants they are hiding in. This enables them to “sneak attack” their prey. Insects often use camouflage to hide from birds or other predators.
The case of the peppered moth in Manchester, England is a well documented scientific study of the value of camouflage in Natural Selection. This case involves two forms of a moth, an insect which relies on camouflage to survive. One form of the moth was white colored and the other form a black color. During the end of the 19th century, with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, smoke particles from the factories gradually blackened the trees on which the moths rested. What was the result of this change in the environment? How were the moth populations affected? How did the moth populations change?



Instructions 


               Go to:                  
https://allaplusessays.com/order
               Click on:               
A bird’s eye view of natural selection (far right circle
with bird)
               Read:                    The
Instructions
               Play:                     5 minutes in the 

Lichen Forest
; hit pause and write down your 
                                              percentages in
the table below.  Stop and goto the Sooty Forest.
               Play:                     5 minutes in the 

Sooty Forest
; hit pause and write down your 
                                              percentages in
the table below.  Stop and answer the questions.


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Name:  _____________________


Peppered Moth Analysis


 

Percent Dark Moths
Percent Light Moths
Lichen Forest
Sooty Forest
1.    Explain how the color of moths increases or decreases
their chances of survival depending on the environment. 
2.    Application:  500 light colored moths and 500 dark
colored moths are released into a polluted forest.  After 2 days
the moths were recaptured, make a prediction about the number of
each type of moth that would be captured. 
3.    How has the striking change in coloration come about?
(Include an explanation of how the dark moth appeared and how the
proportion of dark moths changed from 0.0005% to more than 90% in
polluted forests.)
4.    Using the 
four words we discussed in Lecture, explain how the Peppered
Moth population is an example of 
Natural Selection.
5.    Is Evolution a directed or purposeful event?  Is it
random?  Or is a population evolving “toward something”?  Explain
your answer.

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