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This book, Violence and Social Orders by North, Wallis, and Weingast, attempts to explain their concepts of how a society develops in three central ideas, the transitional phase from a pre-1800 Natural State to an Open Access Order, the permanence of a Natural State during the modern period, and the difference between societies on how to handle the issue of violence. What becomes clear throughout this book is that natural states have not, as one would expect with 200 years of global development, have not disappeared. Rather, they have evolved from fragile and basic natural states to mature natural states, a distinction which is expanded upon later in the book. Most importantly, the change associated with the creation of open access orders has …show more content…
Open access to organisations in all systems in an open access society sustains competition in all systems in this order. The authors themselves state in Chapter 4, “Competition in all systems, in turn, helps sustain open access.” One of the most significant differences between Open and Limited access orders lies in this expansion of impersonal rights. As the authors state themselves in Chapter 4 regarding open access orders, “political management of violence is based on impersonal rules and organizations, not, as in the natural state on the manipulation of economic privileges.” However it ought to be noted that while open access orders are, by definition, more open to the public then limited access orders, there does exist a miscommunication regarding the position of elites. Open access orders, as is noted by the review of this book by John G. Haaga, do not necessarily “entail an assertion that social mobility is easy, that membership in elites is open to all, still less that elites do not exist.” In other words, open access orders provide opportunities which are more socially level; this is by no means equal. Elites do exist. This transition from natural states to open access orders does not so much rely upon the idea that elites have been eliminated between these two states, …show more content…
There do also exist several stages of development within the Natural state, namely those of fragile, basic, to mature forms of natural state. Fragile Natural states are characterised by the simplicity of the institutional structures. Fragile states are under a significant amount of pressure, both internally and externally, in terms of a constantly shifting commitment of the ‘dominant coalition’ of elites, producing a volatile position of power and direction which exists in a state of constant flux. Fragile natural states can contain violence, "but all politics is real politics: people risk death when they make political mistakes. T”. Basic natural states emerge from this fragile natural state; support for organisations is “vested in powerful members of the dominant coalition.” Elites can exert strong controls to focus labour and trade to support their own interests. These elites actually tended to develop their interests in relationship to one another. Namely, if the strongest elites were pushing for, in example, an increase in the production of potatoes then this would be the main focus of the society, at least until this coalition of elites either falls apart through a change in opinion or a stronger coalition pushes for a change in focus, say from potato production to the production of wheat. The

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