PSY380 -PERSONALITY THEORIES Text: Theories of Personality: Understanding Persons 5th Edition, 2008 ISBN: 0-13-243409-1 /978-0-13-243409-6 Authors: Susan C. Cloninger Publisher: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458Personal TheoriesMulti pie Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) Writers and philosophers tell us about human nature. Why do we also need psychology? Writers and philosophers ignore maladjusted personalities. Psychology allows a systematic understanding of human nature. Writers and philosophers ignore human motivation. 0) Psychology is concerned with values, which writers and philosophers ignore. Which of the following kinds of questions are not addressed by personality theory? questions about personality dynamics questions about personality description questions about personality development 0) questions about personality diffusion When we ask, “How do people adjust to their life situations?” and “How does their thought affect what they do,” we are asking questions about the ___ of personality. destiny dynamics development descri ption 4) A diagnosis, made by a clinician, describes a person using a type. non-scientific measurement. a trait. 0) a factor. 5) A hypothesis is a proposal to change the way personality is developed, based on theoretical considerations. a statement saying how a theoretical construct can be measured. a prediction about observations in research. 0) an abstract statement telling how two theoretical constructs are related.6) Which statement best describes the relationship between theory and research? When research has become sophisticated, with good measuring instruments, theory is no longer necessary. Theory influences research by suggesting research ideas, but research has no impact on theory. Theory and research mutually influence one another. 0) Theory and research are separate disciplines within personality psychology. A researcher is interested in testing the proposition that watching a lot of television causes increased aggressiveness among children at school. This can be tested by conducting an experiment in which the independent variable is watching a lot of television. aggressiveness. being in school. 0) age. A is a conceptual tool for understanding certain specified phenomena. theory psychological test variable theoretical construct 9) Tests, such as inkblot tests, which ask people to respond to ambiguous stimuli, are called self-report measures. projective tests. behavioral measures. 0) response measures. Material that is not in awareness at a particular time, but that can readily be recalled if we try, is postconscious. preconscious. conscious. unconscious.11) Hypnosis is best described as an epi leptic-I i ke seizure. a fraudulent claim. a separate state of consciousness. 0) a state of great suggestibility. 12) The id functions according to tertiary process. secondary process. primary process. 0) the reality principle.Personali Theories13) Which of the defense mechanisms listed below is the most primitive? rational ization identification denial projection 14) A person who unconsciously hates a sibling, but consciously feels only love for the sibling, is using the defense mechanism of projection. identification. Isolation. reaction formation. 15) Attitudes toward money are, accordi ng to psychoanalytic theory, related to development during the stage. phallic anal oral 0) latency 16) Sex roles, according to Freud, are learned at about age fourteen. ten. two. 0) four. 17) Experimental research on memory finds that false memories can be created in highly neurotic subjects, but not in those who are psychologically well-adjusted. through suggestion, research subjects report false memories of being lost in a shopping mall. true memories and false memories can easily be distinguished using brain scans. false memories of childhood sexual abuse are easily created under laboratory cond itions. 18) Modern researchers report that stress impairs animals’ memory in experimental studies. psychotic delusions are accompanied by changes in brain functioning. traumatic stress can influence brain functioning in humans. all of the above 19) The fact that Martin Luther King, Jr. expressed himself within the Christian sym bols of h is own heritage, rather than usi ng sym bols from other rei igious trad itions, was evidence that he had not developed to his full potential. was consistent with Jung’s advice that people stay within the symbols and mythology of their own heritage. would have been a disappointment to Jung. shows that he was prejudiced. 20) Compared to Freud, Jung’s theory is more concerned with early childhood experience. mystical. less concerned with heredity. highly deterministic. 21) When Jung and Freud first met they had much to talk about (13 hours worth!). they argued, and decided they could not be colleagues. they planned to set up a joint therapy clinic. Jung asked to be Freud’s patient. 22) Jung refers to the total, integrated personality as the persona. the Self. the animus. the Great Mother. 23) Individuation is the process of finding a social identity. discovering one’s major personality traits. re-centering in adult development. finding the one individual who will be a life-long love partner. 24) Jung suggested that the center of personality ought to bebalanced between the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality. in the unconscious aspects of personality. in the conscious aspects of personality. outside of personality. 25) According to Jung, prejudice against racial minorities involves projection of the shadow. dominant function. animus. anima. 26) A patient who has conflicted, unconscious, emotional ideas about his or her mother is said (in Jungian theory) to have an archetype. a mother complex. a Great Mother. a transference. 27) Jung devised the Word Association Test in order to explore the collective unconscious. complexes. active imagination. transference. 28) Research on early memories shows that they are not important, and that Adler’s predictions were not confirmed. has not been conducted. e) confirms that they correlate with many behaviors. D) shows that early memories are usually inaccurate. 29) Which phrase did Adler use to refer to people who do not develop in a healthy way? retarded neurotic misfits e) mistaken styles of life D) psychologically underdeveloped 30) Adler categorized delinquents as type people. brutal getting e) ruling D) aggressive 31) Adler recommended that parents should indulge their children. teach their children about sex roles. e) avoid pampering their children. D) punish any early signs of homosexuality. 32) The most favorable birth order, according to Adler, is the youngest child. first-born. e) second-born. D) only child. 33) Adler’s major criterion for psychological health is creativity. the absence of anxiety. e) high achievement in school. D) social interest.34) Adlerian therapy aims to increase people’s social interest. ability to recall dreams, self-disclosure. ambition. 35) The term “family constellation” refers to the number, age, and sex of siblings. the fact that grandparents are also important in determining personality. the fam i Iy’s bel iefs about who is the “star.” the genetics of personality, 36) In his epigenetic principle, Erikson compared development with an actor or actress learning a script. the biological development of a fetus. the spiritual development of a soul. the motion of objects as described in physics. 37) In Erikson’s third psychosocial stage, the child acts in a(n) mode. incorporative intrusive incompetent selfish 38) According to Erikson’s theory, a sense of inferiority is particularly likely to develop during the stage of development. second fourth third fifth 39) Teenagers who are rebellious, nonconforming, and philosophically concerned are typical of those in the category of on Marcia’s measure. Moratorium Identity Achiever Foreclosure Identity Diffusion 40) Research finds that people are more likely to be concerned with helping other people, through work or political activity or social activism, if they are high in integrity. autonomy. trust. generativity. 41) According to Erikson, the crisis of infancy is I ife or death. autonomy or shame. eat or throw up. trust or mistrust. 42) The experience of basic anxiety is the feeling of being in a potentially helpless world. loved but challenged armed and dangerous responsi ble and in charge isolated and helpless 43) Which of the following is not one of the three interpersonal orientations described by Horney? moving alongside moving against moving away moving toward 44) People who adopt the resignation solution are seeking self-actualization. freedom. mastery. love. 45) Culture, according to Horney, encourages women to develop fear of failure. fear of men. fear of relationsh ips. fear of success. 46) Research on the relationship between sex role orientation and mental health shows that psychological femininity is associated with higher mental health in women, but not in men. psychological masculinity is associated with higher mental health in both sexes. psychological masculinity is associated with higher mental health in men, but not in women. psychological femininity is associated with higher mental health in both sexes. 47) Which interpersonal orientation(s) does a healthy person use, according to Horney? moving toward, against, and away moving away, but not toward or against moving toward, but not against or away moving against, but not toward or away 48) Allport grew up in Vienna. an orphanage. India. the American Midwest. 49) Allport described traits as traits that are possessed by only one person. common individual cardinal central 50) Secondary traits describe ways in which people try to get their own way in competitive settings. personality can be measured by questionnaire. people are inferior to others. people are consistent, but in ways that affect few behaviors. 51) According to Allport, there is little personality change after age _ years. 30 18 5 3 52) Instead of “intrinsic religious orientation,” Batson suggests that ” ” leads people to non-judgmental concern for helping others. Christianity religious fundamentalism rei igion as quest extrinsic religious orientation 53) In their classic study of rumor transmission, Allport and Postman found that A) eyewitnesses are more accurate than is generally believed. 8) rumor transmission cannot be studied in the laboratory. often a black was reported, wrongly, to have been holding a knife. rumors increase the amount of violence, the more they are retold. 54) A procedure predicts behavior from several variables at once. statistical correlational MAVA multivariate55) Cattell thought that factors were required to make good prediction of behavior. 16 2 10 5 56) Constitutional, dynamic source traits such as anger, curiosity, and fear are called senti ments. attitudes. metaergs. ergs. 57) Connie is imaginative and artistic, and more liberal and broad-minded than most people. The factor that best describes her is agreeableness neuroticism extraversion openness 58) Warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and positive emotions are of extraversion. facets opposites operational definitions invalidation 59) Cattell’s major contribution has been to social psychology. psychotherapy. interview tech n iq ues. measurement.60) Evolutionary theory has implications for altruism. sexual behavior. emotions. 0) all of the above 61) The sexes differ in attitudes toward sexual promiscuity, according to evolutionary theory, because of parental uncertainty. differences in the age of puberty. differences in parenta I investment. 0) different social norms. 62) Evolution selects for parents who abuse their children. nurture their children. have only one child. 0) adopt children. 63) High levels of BIS activity are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. anxiety. criminal behavior. 0) all of the above 64) In J. A. Gray’s theory, low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine are associated with alcoholism. goal-directed behavior. reward dependency. 0) harm avoidance.65) Tiger Woods’ ability to hit a golf ball well is an example of which component of the Basic Behavioral Repertoire? Language-Cogn itive Motor-Conditional Sensory-Motor 0) Emotional-Motivational 66) Matthew has learned to tease his little sister, Jane. When he first meets his cousin, Sarah, he teases her, too. What learning concept best explains this teasing of Sarah? d iscri m i nation negative reinforcement generalization 0) ratio schedule reinforcement 67) A shortcoming of continuous reinforcement is that it produces learning that is difficult to eliminate. impossible to generalize to new situations. not measurable by observers. 0) not resistant to extinction. 68) The first step in behavior modification is making a functional analysis of the behavior to be changed. selecting a reinforcer. deciding on a schedule of reinforcement. 0) extinguishing the undesirable behavior. 69) Staats developed a theory called tokenism. behavioral psychology. psychological behaviorism. repertory psychoanalysis.70) In addition to Freud’s first three psychosexual stages, Dollard and Miller described a fourth stage, concerned with conflict over sex roles. playmates. siblings. anger. 71) Dollard and Miller postulated that interfering with an organism’s behavior which would reduce a drive (for example, preventing a hungry animal from eating) would produce aggression. apathy. identification. discrimination learning. Language is, for Dollard and Miller, the key to understanding Freudian ___ processes. superego id ego defensive 73) Expressing difficult emotions by writing about them has been shown to increase physica I hea Ith reduce feelings of anxiety reduce feelings of depression all of the above 74) Miller and Dollard suggested that “in order to learn, one must want something, notice something, something, and get something.” decide do give ask for 75) The term consistency paradox refers to the paradox that most personality theories seem to be saying the same thing, onIy in different words. the challenge of understanding how people can develop across a lifetime yet still remain consistent. the discrepancy between research, which shows that people act differently in different situations, and common sense, which says they are consistent. people’s efforts to seem consistent to other people. 76) Delay of gratification is easier if the child sees models who delay their own gratification. the rewards are visible. the child thinks about how good the reward is. all of the above Bandura and colleagues demonstrated that children can learn _through modeling. arbitrary playfu I behaviors performance standards aggression all of the above 78) In his studies of film-mediated aggression, children watched models behave aggressively toward children. a Bobodoll. animals. other adults. 79) In his studies of aggressive behavior, Bandura found that children increased their aggression if the model was punished for being aggressive. children stopped their aggression if it led to physical injury. boys were more aggressive than girls. children imitated live models, but not models seen on film.80) Kelly’s concept of helps understand unconscious and emotional experience. preemption constructive alternativism preverbal constructs the Dichotomy Corollary 81) According to Sherry, “Most people are selfish.” Her therapist asks her, “What are the other people like, the ones who are not selfish?” The therapist is asking about the _ concrete construct contrast pole likeness pole core construct 82) “Slot-movement” refers to role changes, such as moving from being a student to being an employee. gambling. radical changes, such as from atheist to “born-again Christian.” a method for scoring personality tests. 83) What is the third phase of the C-P-C cycle? calibration control circumspection counting 84) In order to have a relationship with someone, according to Kelly’s Sociality Corollary, you must have the same personal constructs. mutually trust one another. mutually respect one another. understand that person’s construct system (or be understood by that person).85) When people are emotionally disturbed or criminals, Rogers blamed bad genetic influences. their parents. social forces. them for a lack of wi II power. 86) Which of the following is not a characteristic of a fully functioning person, according to Rogers? creativity openness to experience the experience of freedom adaptation to others’ expectations 87) Which of the following was not one of the characteristics of a fully functioning person I isted by Rogers? creativity existential living openness to experience social interest 88) Rogers called his therapeutic method self-actualization therapy. revised psychoanalysis. client-centered therapy. individualized therapy. 89) A person who is “metamotivated” is in the middIe of the need hierarchy. is passive and receptive, rather than active. feels determined by forces beyond his or her control. is trying to restore homeostasis. 90) Which of the following characteristics is typical of O-Iove? faci I itation of each partner’s growth independence for both partners jealousy 0) self-actual ization 91) Maslow described self-actualized people as thinking like a(n) psychologist. politician. scientist. 0) artist. 92) People who score high on self-actualization are also likely to score high on various measures of mental illness. mental health. sexual guilt. 0) alcohol abuse. 93) Karma refers to intentionaI, wiIlfuI activity. the selfless ideal of Buddhism. good or bad consequences for our actions. 0) detachment. 94) Buddhism describes moments of perception. 25 5 17 0) 10 95) Attending to the first levels in the moments of perception (those things that are below traditional levels of conscious attention) is called _ anatta perceptual yearning focused awareness 0) pure awareness 96) Uri has been meditating for many years. What is likely true about his psycho logical state? He has low levels of ego development He has higher moral reasoning skills. He has a constant identity crisis. He lacks coping skills. 97) Which of the following theorists described personality adjustment as “developing to your full potential”? Freud Cattell Horney Maslow 98) One value that some people seek in personality theory, but that is not listed by the text as a criterion of a good theory, is applied value. optimism about human nature. comprehensiveness. verifiabi I ity. 99) Rogers’s “actualizing tendency” is based upon a(n) metaphor. mechanistic information processing organic political 100) The approach that advocates combining various theories into one systematic whole is called pluralism. unified theory. eclecticism. none of the above
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