“Samuel wears a hat. All baseball players wear a hat. Therefore, Samuel is a baseball player.” Thepreceding is an inaccurate conclusion based on two premises. “Samuel is a baseball player. Allbaseball players wear a hat. Therefore, Samuel wears a hat.” The preceding is an accurateconclusion based on two premises. Even though only one of these statements comes to anaccurate conclusion, they both use a __________.A. discursionB. inductionC. syllogismD. deduction__________ is the cognitive process of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps toreach conclusions.A. VerbalizingB. ReasoningC. ConcentratingD. Schematic processingRecently, Marika had to end an eighteen-month-long relationship with Joshua, a man with whomshe was deeply in love. She recognized, however, that they did not want the same things out oflife; specifically, Joshua wanted to get married someday, and Marika was not interested inmarriage. Though they tried to work out a compromise, it was not going to work out. Eventhough ending the relationship was painful, Marika was able to understand and manage her ownfeelings, even to the point of helping Joshua through the break-up with as little pain as possible.Marika is clearly very gifted in the area of __________ intelligence.A. self-awareB. intrapersonalC. savantD. emotionalDr. Ja is giving a presentation at a professional research conference, and the next day is discussing her presentation with her Psy 101 students. Dr. Ja uses one type of language – full ofprofessional jargon and impressive-sounding words – during her conference presentation, butshe removes this sort of advanced language when talking to her undergraduates. This is anexample of __________.A. audience designB. the language acquisition deviceC. style-shiftingD. the cooperative principleThe __________ state refers to a problem-solving condition in which a person has incomplete orunsatisfactory information.A. initialB. boggledC. inadequateD. misinformedWhich of the following statements regarding Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligencesis the most accurate?A. Any person can be strong in any combination of multiple types of intelligence.B. Each of the intelligences is based on genetics, so there is no real way a person can “develop”intelligence.C. Each person has one and only one strong intelligence, which is countered by one and onlyone deficient intelligence. The other six will cluster around being “average.”D. Research has found that the older we get, the more strengths we have in different types ofintelligence.Which of the following is one of the eight multiple intelligences proposed by Howard Gardner?A. crystallizedB. general C. creativeD. naturalisticWhich of the following is one of the aspects of intelligence according to the theory ofpsychologist Robert Sternberg?A. interpersonal intelligenceB. crystallized intelligenceC. intrapersonal intelligenceD. creative intelligenceThe __________ fallacy is a phenomenon that causes people to believe that additionalinformation increases the probability that a statement is true, even though that probabilityactually decreased.A. hindsightB. irrationalityC. conjunctionD. discursionA very popular book that discusses common grammatical errors is called Eats, Shoots andLeaves. This book title is humorous because the __________ ambiguity allows for two possibleinterpretations of the thought: (1. a person had a meal, pulled out and fired a gun, and thenexited, or (2. an animal consumes both shoots and leaves as part of its diet.A. semanticB. lexicalC. structuralD. morphemicWhen you are studying for an exam, you will have a better chance of understanding, encoding, and later retrieving a concept if you use __________.A. verbal cognitionB. visual and verbal cognitionC. visual cognitionD. vestibular cognitionEllen and Mike are trying to decide where to go for an anniversary dinner. Mike says to Ellen,“Okay, you can have anything you want. We can do Chinese, Italian, Thai, Mexican, or Spanishfood. If you want sushi, that is fine, or we can go to an upscale steakhouse! I’m even fine if youwant to go get a few fast-food burgers and then go for ice cream. So what will it be?” Accordingto the concept of decision aversion, what is Ellen likely to choose?A. Ellen is likely to get angry at Mike for not choosing dinner.B. Ellen is likely to make no choice at all.C. Ellen will choose the most expensive meal, since Mike gave her the option of choosinganything she wants.D. Ellen will consider which meal she likes the best and choose a restaurant that will serve thatmeal.The ability to process information and act accordingly is called __________ intelligence, whilethe mental ability derived from previous experience is called __________ intelligence.A. practical; analyticalB. crystallized; fluidC. analytical; practicalD. fluid; crystallizedHave you ever been distracted while you were speaking and accidentally switched the sounds oftwo words? For example, a person might mean to say, “I’m going to get a turkey sandwich” andinstead say, “I’m going to get a surkey tandwich.” This type of expressive inversion is called a__________. A. phonemic reversalB. syntactic switchC. spoonerismD. morphismResearch has demonstrated all but which of the following with regard to people who speak morethan one language?A. People who are bilingual from an early age show an increase in the density of the graymatter in the lower-left parietal area of the brain, suggesting that learning multiple languagesactually promotes cognitive growth.B. Adults who learn a second language later in life actually use different cognitive strategiesthan children who learn the second language, and thus their brains process the second languagedifferently than people who learn a second language early in life.C. Being bilingual is not a skill that is unique to human beings since animals who are able tolearn to use sign language can learn multiple forms of sign language.D. Asian immigrants who come to the United States of America as young children understandAmerican English as proficiently as native speakers.All politicians are dirty, crooked, and dishonest, right? How many examples of dirty politicianscan you come up with? The fact that you might be able to immediately think of a few examplesof dirty politicians may lead you to believe that all politicians are, in fact, dishonest. This is anexample of the __________ heuristic.A. conjunctionB. confirmationC. availabilityD. representativeWhen it comes to testing the intelligence of people from different cultural backgrounds who livein the same community, which of the following statements is the most accurate? A. It may be impossible to create an intelligence test completely free of cultural bias.B. As long as the IQ test is given in a uniform manner, the influence of different culturalbackgrounds is minimal and it is not necessary to consider those differences.C. The only time an IQ test has cultural bias is if the test administrator has a particular desire toact in a way that discriminates against the test taker.D. Cultural bias is not something that needs to be considered, but gender bias is a very salienttopic in the world of intelligence testing.The term book knowledge most resembles __________ intelligence from the theory of RobertSternberg.A. analyticB. emotionalC. practicalD. academicResearch finds that strong central __________ functioning, the set of mental processes thatgoverns goals, strategies, and coordination of the mind’s activities, is related to higherintelligence.A. executiveB. cognitiveC. psychicD. unconsciousDuring a lecture on the dangers of stereotypes, Dr. Humphrey stated to her class, “As an exampleof a commonly held stereotype, some people believe that African-American individuals are lessintelligent than Caucasian individuals.” A student in her class who was not paying attention onlyheard her say, “African-American individuals are less intelligent than Caucasian individuals.”Clearly there will be a problem based on this miscommunication, but the real issue is that the__________ of the issue that was provided by the teacher was different than that which was received by the student.A. communicationB. schemaC. point of viewD. framingWhich theorist suggested that we are born with a neurological mechanism that leaves usbiologically prepared to use language skills?A. Lev VygotskyB. Jean PiagetC. Jean-Baptiste de LamarckD. Noam ChomskyWhen young Ari was born, his father was absolutely amazed by the fact that his head wasproportionally so much larger than the rest of his body. In talking with his wife, a developmentalpsychologist, about his reaction, she laughed and said, “Oh that’s so normal! Children tend togrow from top to bottom, in a pattern called the __________ rule.”A. proximodistalB. cephalocaudalC. north-to-southD. motor-sequencingWhich of the following is a commonly discussed criticism of Piaget’s theory of cognitivedevelopment in children? A. Piaget felt that development was more fluid and continuous than modern researchersbelieve.B. Piaget underestimated the cognitive ability of children.C. The foundations of formal operational thinking appear later than Piaget theorized.D. Piaget did allow for the fact that teratogens during pregnancy could impair cognitivedevelopment.Which of the following statements is the most accurate with regard to life expectancy?A. There is no single trend about gender differences for life expectancy that can be generalizedto the entire world, because nearly every country shows different patterns of life expectancybased on lifestyle choices.B. On average, men outlive women by three years throughout the world, but women outlivemen by two years in the United States.C. On average, there is no difference in life expectancy between men and women throughoutthe world; however, in the United States men outlive women by five years.D. On average, women outlive men by four years throughout the world and by five to six yearsin the United States.Which of the following is an example of a primary sex characteristic?A. changes in vocal toneB. growth of the breastsC. growth of facial hairD. growth of the genitalsCharmaine is interested in going to graduate school to gain expertise into the way in whichpeople experience physical, cognitive, and social changes over the course of their lives. The type of program that Charmaine should be applying to is __________ psychology.A. developmentalB. childC. socialD. ecologicalKayla was talking to her twelve-month-old daughter, and was talking in a very high-pitched,exaggerated voice. Experts refer to this sort of communication as __________.A. babblingB. infant-oriented speechC. mothereseD. cooingAccording to theory, which is supported by research, if children are deprived of the opportunityto learn language in the years before __________, it will be very difficult if not impossible forthem to ever master the rules of grammar.A. entering schoolB. adolescenceC. toddlerhoodD. pubertyMost experts agree that there is a combination of factors – both biological and social – thatcontribute to a child’s ability to acquire language skills. The language-acquisition __________ isthe social environment into which a baby is born, and if that environment stresses andencourages language skills, the child has a better chance of mastering those skills. A. environmentB. support systemC. milieuD. contextBy the time a child reaches the age of around eighteen months, he or she will start rapidlylearning new words and associating them with their meanings. In fact, children at this age maylearn up to __________ new nouns every day!A. tenB. twenty-fiveC. forty-fiveD. sixtyWhich of the following statements is the best summary of the cognitive development theory ofLev Vygotsky?A. Cognitive development occurs on a social level before it occurs at the individual level.B. Children are in need of strict boundaries from their parents so they can learn what to andwhat not to do.C. Cognitive development occurs when children are left to their own devices, with as littleinfluence as possible from outside factors.D. Children are little scientists who learn by exploringWhy does exercise help to reduce memory loss and brain decline in older adults?A. Because exercise reduces our need to use medications, many of which cause damage tobrain cells over time. B. Because exercise stimulates neurons and actually helps the brain to grow new cells.C. Because exercise helps increase the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the brain.D. Because exercise helps to remove toxins from our system that are stored in fat cells.In Piaget’s theory, the term __________ refers to concepts or frameworks around which peopleorganize and interpret information.A. centrationsB. operationsC. schemasD. centrismsDespite popular believe that “most” people experience a crisis when they come to their middleadulthood years, recent research has found that only __________% of adults reportedexperiencing a midlife crisis.A. 2B. 5C. 7D. 10Xavier is doing a research study investigating the moral decision making of people at variousages. He wants to know if adolescents see right and wrong differently than senior citizens, so hegives his research subjects a moral dilemma and asks them to discuss the various moral issuesinvolved. In developmental psychology, Xavier’s research is exploring age __________.A. changesB. development C. conceptsD. differencesWhich of the following is true with regard to the order of development of motor skills?A. Babies develop motor skills based on what they see, so it is largely a function of imitation.B. Babies develop motor skills in very unique sequences, so there is no “order” of skills that isconsidered typical.C. Motor development in babies has two predictable paths – one for sighted children and onefor blind children.D. Motor development tends to occur in a universal sequence and thus specific skillspredictably develop before other skills.Which part of the brain experiences the greatest growth between the ages of three and sixyears?A. temporal lobesB. parietal lobesC. frontal lobesD. occipital lobesWhich theorist led the case for the influence of social interactions on cognitive development?A. Urie BronfrenbrennerB. Lev VygotskyC. Sigmund FreudD. Jean Piaget Which of the following types of changes would not be of primary interest to a developmentalpsychologist?A. physical changesB. cognitive changesC. unconscious changesD. social changesThough the recent research has its problems, it has suggested which of the following trendsabout intelligence changes as we age?A. Intelligence is generally very stable, and may even increase into later adulthood.B. Intelligence is a very static phenomenon – there are no significant changes that occur overthe course of the lifespan.C. Intelligence is an inverted U-shaped curve – it starts low, increases through childhood intoadulthood, and then shows a significant decline as we get over the age of seventy years.D. Intelligence is a linear phenomenon – it slowly increases as we age from childhood to
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