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_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform
that behavior.

Partial reinforcement effect

Vicarious conditioning

Observational learning

Learning/performance distinction

Which of the following is one of Bandura’s elements of
observational learning?





The learning/performance distinction is a kind of:

classical conditioning.

latent learning.


operant conditioning.

A teacher has decided to give “caught being good” tickets to
her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also
rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This
teacher is using:

operant conditioning.

classical conditioning.

punishment and classical conditioning.

observational learning.

Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s
older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an
example of:

biological preparedness.

stimulus substitution.

conditioned emotional response.

vicarious conditioning.

Sammy and his friends are watching animated fight scenes on
television. Based on Bandura’s findings in the Bobo doll experiment, it seems
likely that later, at play, Sammy and his friends will:

be slightly less aggressive.

imitate the dialogue between the characters.

be much less aggressive.

imitate many of the violent actions they witnessed on TV.

Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his
parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon’s parents are using
what technique to modify his behavior?

punishment by removal

punishment by application

negative reinforcement

secondary reinforcement

Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with

have shown that chimpanzees are the only animals that have

have found support for the concept of animal insight.

have shown definitively that animals have insight.

have found no support for the concept of animal insight.

In Köhler’s experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one
stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then he
learned to fit two sticks together to reach a banana placed farther away. This
was an example of:

trial-and-error learning.


classical conditioning.

latent learning.

In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the
rats in the group that did not receive reinforcement for solving the maze had:

learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a
cognitive map.

more interest in the reinforcement than did the other

learned to expect reinforcement every tenth day.

been more motivated by the variable interval schedule of

In defining learning, “_____” refers to the fact that when
people learn anything, a part of their brain is physically changed to record
what they have learned, and that change remains even if the behavior does not.


relatively permanent



One of B. F. Skinner’s famous experiments involved:

teaching dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.

teaching rats to learn how to obtain food.

teaching babies to avoid loud noises.

teaching coyotes to ignore sheep.

A recent study suggests a link between spanking and:

aggression in children.

submissiveness in children.

children’s concentration.


It is believed that animals revert eventually to instinctual
behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with:

other animals.

extinct behaviors.

caring for their young.

obtaining food.

The law of effect states if an action is followed by a
pleasurable consequence, the action is likely to:

reduce pain.

be remembered.

become a cognitive expectation.

be repeated.

Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object
or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result


operant conditioning.

biological preparedness.


This scientist conducted research to establish the theory
known as cognitive perspective.

John B. Watson

Robert Rescorla

Edward Thorndike

Ivan Pavlov

The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning

biological preparedness.

the mental activity of consciously expecting something else
to occur.

the ability of animals to learn new information.

the mental activity of analyzing another’s behavior and
making a choice to copy that behavior.

_____ believed that classical conditioning occurred because
the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.





_________ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned
response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in
classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant

Stimulus generalization

Stimulus discrimination

Spontaneous recovery


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