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Multiple Choice Questions
2.The term is used to describe the study of how we have come to have knowledge.
(a) nativism
(b) rationalism
(c) epistemology
(d) none of the above
(d) response generalization

12. Gibson & Walk’s classic perceptual learning experiment found that:
(a) infants exposed to English phonemes demonstrate language skills earlier than Hindi infants
(b) preexposure to stimuli inhibits later learning
(c) preexposure to stimuli facilitates later learning
(d) the more one knows about a learning environment, the less one can learn in the future
13.As a result of his past experiences with police, whenever Pat hears a police siren, he expects that he will soon be arrested. This type of a reaction arises from which model of habituation?
(a) behavioral
(b) non-learning
(c) cogn itive
(d) physiological
14.Aplysia have been used to study the physiological properties of learning because:
(a) they only have one neuron, which makes it easy to see and study
(b) they only have a few neurons, which are relatively large in size
(c) they have the same number of neurons as humans, so generalizations can be made from Aplysia to humans
(d) none of the above
15.An Aplysia’s siphon, when stimulated by touch, withdraws into its body. Repeated tactile stimulation produces:
(a) sensitization
(b) habituation
(c) effector fatigue
(d) response generalization

18.Using the situation described above in question #17, an unpaired control condition would involve:
(a) havi ng the I ight presented after the shock
(b) always presenting the light and shock separate from each other
(c) presenting the light and shock at the same time
(d) presenting the light by itself
19.Using the situation described above in question #17, a truly random control condition would involve:
(a) having the light presented after the shock
(b) always presenting the light and shock in distant temporal orders
(c) presenting the light and shock in an completely non-correlated manner
(d) presenting the light by itself
20.Using the situation described above in question #17, after conditioning has been completed, the occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that:
(a) presenting the shock by itself suppresses the CS-US association
(b) presenting the light by itself causes the CS-US association to be unlearned
(c) presenting the light by itself causes the CS-US association to be suppressed
(d) none of the above
23.individuals, their anxiety:
(a) inhibits learning
(b) heightens a learning response
(c) has no effect on learning ability
(d) only inhibits learning after prolonged exposure to CSs

25. ____ pairings are effective in producing a es that will elicit conditioned responses.

(a) simuItaneous
(b) backward
(c) forward
(d) all of the above lead to equally strong eRs
26. Skinner, concerning reinforcement, made the argument that reinforcers:
(a) only have their reinforcing qualities in their originally-used context
(b) lead to satisfaction
(c) increase the frequency of the operant response
(d) possess transsituationality

28.James has an intense, physiological desire for a hamburger. Which of the following approaches could offer the best explanation for the effect that a hamburger would have on James at this moment?
(a) incentive motivation
(b) reinforcer priming
(c) the Premack Principle
(d) drive reduction
29. Which is NOT a theory of reinforcers as stimuli?
(a) incentive motivation
(b) brain stimulation
(c) drive reduction
(d) biofeedback
30.Professor Smith is conducting an experiment where she is studying the degree to which drives can be increased in young lab rats. This experiment seems to be testing the basic idea underlying which approach to reinforcement?
(a) incentive motivation
(b) brain stimulation
(c) the Premack Principle
(d) drive reduction
3l. The idea that reinforcers can be behaviors, and not stimuli, is central to which reinforcement approach?
(a) incentive motivation
(b) brain stimulation
(c) the Premack Principie
(d) drive reduction

32.James loves candy and hates vegetables. However, his father wants to make sure that James eats his vegetables, since they’re good for him. To ensure vegetable consumption, James is only allowed to have candy after he has eaten his vegetables. This situation illustrates the application of:
(a) intrinsic motivation
(b) reinforcer priming
(c) the Premack Principle
(d) drive reduction
33.The idea that reinforcers allow previously-established neural connections to become stronger is an attempt to connect the concept of reinforcement to:
(a) incentive motivation
(b) memory consolidation
(c) biofeedback
(d) drive reduction
34.Which of the following is the reinforcement-related role that biofeedback is said to play?
(a) informational
(b) drive-reducing
(c) strengthen i ng
(d) all of the above
35.James has found that whenever he talks back to a school bully, the bully leaves him alone, but when he ignores the bully, the bully attacks him. Talking back to the bully would be an example of:
(a) active avoidance
(b) two-process theory
(c) punishment
(d) passive avoidance
36. Two-Process theory suggests which of the following procedural orders when training avoidance?
(a) instrumental conditioning followed by classical conditioning
(b) classical conditioning followed by instrumental conditioning
(c) punishment followed by reinforcement
(d) passive avoidance followed by active avoidance
37.Which of the following can be found within the context of Two-Process theory?
(a) escape learning
(b) helplessness
(c) punishment
(d) all of the above
38.Eric is trying to teach a pigeon to peck at a lighted pad in order to avoid receiving a shock while in a operant learning chamber, but is finding that the pigeon is having a difficult time learning this association. This problem is expected, according to which theory of avoidance learning?
(a) cognitive
(b) approach-avoidance
(c) functional
(d) learned helplessness
40. An approach-avoidance conflict involves:
(a) having an approach tendency that is stronger than an avoidance tendency
(b) having an approach tendency that is weaker than an avoidance tendency
(c) having an approach tendency that is equal to an avoidance tendency
(d) not knowing if one should escape or avoid a stimulus

42.As a result of taking this test today, you are having a difficult time recalling the material you studied yesterday, for a test in tomorrow’s calculus class. The memory deficit described here illustrates:
(a) retroactive interference
(b) proactive interference
(c) anchoring
(d) remote associations
43.The stimulus-response nature of learning can be seen most directly in which of the following memory tasks?
(a) the serial position effect
(b) proactive interference
(c) anchoring
(d) paired associate learning
44. The occurrence of highly similar items on a paired-associate learning task tends to:
(a) enhance one’s generalization ability
(b) lead to cognitive elaboration
(c) inhibit one’s generalization ability
(d) all of the above
45.A group of children are presented with a list of 20 words that they are told to remember. upon engaging In a free-recall task after the list is presented, which of the following children is likely to recall the most words?
(a) Joe, a lO-year-old boy
(b) Toni, an 8-yearold girl
(c) Susan, a 5-year-old girl
(d) Bob, a 5-year-old boy
46.Which of the following groups of words has the highest chance of being recalled perfectly?
(a) cat, automobile, phone, I ight, word
(b) garbage, wood, television, basket, carpet
(c) apple, orange, banana, pear, watermelon
(d) all have equal chances of being recalled

47. Which of the following is not an effect that organization has on memory?
(a) directs memory search during recall
(b) provides stronger primacy and recency effects
(c) reduces one’s memory load
(d) influences the sequence in which items are recalled
48.Recalling the words DOG, CAR, SNEAKER, BIKE, CAT, and SANDAL as “DOG, CAT, CAR, BIKE, SNEAKER and SANDAL” is an example of:
(a) categorical clustering
(b) matrix recall
(c) associative clustering
(d) all of the above
49. Mary’s knowledge of how to drive a car is most likely originating from her:
(a) procedural memory
(b) explicit memory
(c) episod ic memory
(d) semantic memory
50.A common finding obtained when comparing the memory abilities of normal individuals to amnesics is:
(a) the normals and amnesics have equal explicit memory skills
(b) the amnesics have better irnpucrt memory abilities than the normals
(c) the normals and amnesics have equal implicit memory skills
(d) the amnesics have better explicit memory abilities than the normals
5l. The contamination of an implicit memory test with explicit retrieval can be reduced by:
(a) making sure subjects understand their implicit memory instructions
(b) using subliminal presentations
(c) using amnesia patients as subjects
(d) using individuals below the age of 18 in experiments
52.Which of the following can be taken as evidence that implicit memories arise from a different memory system than explicit memories?

(a) performance on implicit and explicit tests are positively correlated
(b) individual differences seem to affect explicit, but not implicit, abilities
(c) experimental treatments tend to have equal effects on implicit and explicit memory
(d) all of the above
53. Episodic and semantic LTM have been suggested to be elements within:
(a) declarative memory
(b) non-declarative memory
(c) working memory
(d) implicit memory
54. Which of the following is not a step in the Stage Model of memory?
(a) storage
(b) retrieval
(c) encod i ng
(d) none of the above
55.Forgetting where you placed your car keys can be due to a deficit during which stage of memory?
(a) storage
(b) retrieval
(c) encoding
(d) forgetting could arise from problems at anyone of these stages
56.Studies of Delayed Matching to Sample are used to assess which memory system in animals?
(a) sensory memory
(b) procedural memory
(c) short-term memory
(d) long-term memory
57.As stated in your text, animal research shows that animals possess which of the following human-like skills? (Box 8.1)
(a) STM
(b) control processes
(c) LTM
(d) A and B only
58.Which is NOT listed in your text (Box 8.2) as a condition which can cause memory loss?
(a) alcohol poisoning
(b) toxic poisoning from bad shellfish
(c) Lyme disease
(d) overexposure to high altitudes
59. Which of the following is NOT a component of Working Memory?
(a) phonological loop
(b) central executive
(c) visuospatial sketchpad
(d) sensory memory
60.Joe is having a hard time taking notes in Professor Jones’s class, because he can’t repeat the professor’s words fast enough to hold them in his mind and write them down. Joe’s memory difficulty is most likely stemming from a difficulty within which working memory component?
(a) phonological loop
(b) central executive
(c) visuospatial sketchpad
(d) sensory memory
61.Mary is at a party, talking to Tom. However, in the middle of her conversation, she hears her name mentioned across the room, and almost immediately turns her attention to the place in the room from where she believes she heard her name. The element of Working Memory most responsible for this shifting of attention is most likely the:
(a) phonological loop
(b) central executive
(c) visuospatial sketchpad
(d) sensory memory
62.Professor Smith believes that one’s immediate memory can hold a variety of pieces of information, from different domains, simultaneously. Such an ability would be possible only if which system functions properly?
(a) Short-Term Memory
(b) Long-Term Memory
(c) Worki ng Memory
(d) Sensory Memory

63.Mary suffered a stroke, the result of which damaged the Episodic Buffer of her Working Memory. As a result, Mary will likely have difficulty when she:
(a) tries to connect the contents of Working Memory to Sensory Memory
(b) attempts to retrieve data from Long Term Memory to use in Working Memory
(c) retain visual images
(d) allocate her attentional skills across a variety of tasks
64.At the start of his gO-minute lecture on child development, Professor Mentyl shows his class a 10 minute home video of his own young children playing with their pet dog. When students later take an exam on this lecture, Professor Mentyl finds that the students didn’t remember the details of the critical child development theories that were the focus of the above lecture. This effect has come to be known as:
(a) the spacing effect
(b) the seductive detail effect
(c) the generation effect
(d) verbal overshadowing
65. Which of the following is not an explanation for the spacing effect?
(a) encod i ng variabi I ity
(b) retrograde amnesia
(c) attention deficit
(d) anterograde amnesia
66.One should not study information in a massed manner on more than one occasion because the second session may interfere with the processing of the first session. This statement is consistent with which explanation of the spacing effect?
(a) encoding variability
(b) retrograde amnesia
(c) attention deficit
(d) anterograde amnesia
67.Mary finished studying for her physics exam at lOpm last night. Upon returning to the library to continue studying this morning, Mary found it difficult to focus on the task at hand. This is illustrative of which explanation of the spacing effect?
(a) encoding variability
(b) retrograde amnesia
(c) attention deficit
(d) anterograde amnesia
68.John is studying for his psychology exam on 4 successive nights, and each night he studies in a different location, at a different time of day, and comes up with different examples of the theories he is trying to learn. This is illustrative of which explanation of the spacing effect?
(a) encod i ng variabi I ity
(b) retrograde amnesia
(c) attention deficit
(d) anterograde amnesia
69. Depth of processing explicit memory and implicit memory.
(a) enhances; has little or no effect on
(b) inhibits; enhances
(c) enhances; enhances
(d) inhibits; has no effect on
70.Which of the following scenarios is most likely to produce the best retention of studied material, according to the optimal spacing theory?
(a) spacing 2 study periods 1 day apart from each other, followed by a test 3 days later
(b) spacing 2 study periods 1 day apart from each other, followed by a test 4 days later
(c) spacing 2 study periods 2 days apart from each other, followed by a test 10 days later
(d) spacing 2 study periods 4 days apart from each other, followed by a test 5 days later
7l. The generation effect gets its name from:
(a) comparing performances on a memory test between groups from older and younger generations
(b) forcing an experimenter to generate stimuli that a subject must attend to
(c) forcing a subject to generate their own stimuli in a memory experiment
(d) none of the above
72.An experimenter presents a subject with the words CAR and CLOUD. If this was an experiment studying the generation effect, the subject’s task would involve:
(a) repeati ng the words CAR and CLOU D over and over
(b) counting the number of letters in the words CAR and CLOUD
(c) Using the letters in the words CAR and CLOUD to form a new word
(d) none of the above

Learn i ng Theories
73.The idea that remembering actually improves over successive attempts and reproduction of the studied material is illustrated by the notion of:
(a) d isti nctiveness
(b) encoding specificity
(c) hypermnesia
(d) all of the above
74.To have the best chance of retrieving information during an exam, students should:
(a) study the examples their teachers used in class
(b) only study in a happy mood
(c) create their own examples related to material that was presented in class
(d) study in a room that is different from the room where they’ll take their exam
75. Encoding specificity refers to the idea that:
(a) retrieval is enhanced when multiple recall attempts are made
(b) retrieval is enhanced when retrieval cues are similar to encoding cues
(c) retrieval is inhibited when multiple recall attempts are made
(d) retrieval is inhibited when retrieval cues are similar to encoding cues
76.Since John drank 10 cups of coffee while studying for his chemistry exam, he drinks 10 more while taking the test in order reinstate the physiological state he was under while studying. This behavior suggests that John is a firm bel iever in:
(a) d isti nctiveness
(b) encoding specificity
(c) hypermnesia
(d) state dependent learning
77.Whenever Julie is sad, she can only remember sad events. In these cases, Julie’s memory ability seems to be based on:
(a) dependent memory
(b) encoding specificity
(c) hypermnesia
(d) mood-congruent memory

7B. Not all scientists are convinced of the validity of encoding-retrieval paradigm effects because:
(a) not all cues/states become connected to all targets
(b) state-dependent effects are not always found in experiments investigating these effects
(c) tests of recognition tend to not yield encoding-retrieval effects
(d) all of the above
79.While working at her desk, Mary remembers that it is her turn to cook dinner tonight. She then writes a quick reminder note to herself to stop by the supermarket on the way home to pick up some groceries to use for dinner. Mary’s actions here are illustrative of:
(a) encoding specificity
(b) hypermnesia
(c) spreading of activation
(d) prospective memory
80. Which of the following is NOT an example of prospective memory?
(a) rememberi ng that one has a dentist appoi ntment next week
(b) remembering that one has to pick up one’s child from football practice tomorrow
(c) remembering that you were sexually abused 15 years ago, as a child
(d) none of the above
Bl. The existence of partial retrieval is supported by effects.
(a) tip-of-the-tongue and feeling-of-knowing
(b) tip-of-the-tongue and prospective memory
(c) feeling-of-knowing and prospective memory
(d) tip-of-the-tongue, feeling-of-knowing, and prospective memory
B2. If you were presented with the words NURSE, SICK, HOSPITAL, and MEDICI NE, and when asked to recall these words at a later time, which of the following words has the highest likelihood of being FALSELY recalled?
(d) BUS
83.The beliefs and self-knowledge that individuals possess about what they’ve learned are central to:
(a) metacogn ition
(b) knowledge of results
(c) practice-i ndependent learn i ng
(d) implicit learning
84. Implicit learning:
(a) is the same as implicit memory
(b) tends to be impaired in amnesics
(c) involves unconscious learning of complex information
(d) all of the above
85. The lO-year rule applies to the amount of time it takes to:
(a) become an expert in a given field
(b) extinct conditioned responses
(c) develop implicit learning abilities
(d) become a Psychologist
86.When damaged, this part of the brain impairs skill learning, but leaves word priming intact. It is also the area of the brain which is affected in Huntington’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
(a) hippocampus
(b) basal ganglia
(c) amygdala
(d) all of the above
87. Implicit learning ability:
(a) can only be used in the context it was initially acquired
(b) tends to be impaired in amnesiacs
(c) can be transferred to new contexts
(d) only involves motor skill ability
88.Joe, a normal high school sophomore, has just started to learn how to play chess, although his goal is to become a world-class chess expert. Joe will most likely be able to attain this goal:
(a) a few years after he graduates from college
(b) immediately after graduating high school
(c) before he graduates from high school if he practices hard enough
(d) none of the above– either you are born with expert skills or you’re not
89.Huntington’s and Alzheimer’s patients show patterns of ability across different implicit tests of their knowledge.
(a) identical
(b) similar
(c) different
(d) none of the above– these individuals lose their implicit processing skills
90. Which of the following notions concerning expertise tends to be disputed?
(a) it is a function of practice
(b) it is inherited
(c) proper motivation to become am expert is essential
(d) experts need to persevere in learning their specific skill
91. Developmental disabilities can be caused by:
(a) birth defects
(b) head injury
(c) malnutrition
(d) all of the above
92. The cognitive impairment of Down Syndrome is the result of:
(a) lack of formal education
(b) a genetic defect
(c) head injury
(d) malnutrition
93.Barry has three copies of chromosome 21. Which of the following tasks will he most likely have d ifficu Ity with?
(a) reciting his telephone number
(b) tracing the correct path though a maze
(c) stating the names of his brothers and sisters
(d) stating the names of his cat and dog
94.Julie, a ten year old, has impairment with visual-spatial tasks, but performs quite well with verbal tasks. Her diagnosis is most likely:
(a) Dyslexia
(b) Down Syndrome
(c) Williams Syndrome
(d) all of the above
95.The mnemonist “S.” can be said to have had a memory problem in the sense that he had problems:
(a) encod i ng information
(b) retrieving information
(c) forgetti ng information
(d) with Korsakoff’s Disease
96. Learning disabled children tend to exhibit problems with:
(a) memory encoding
(b) memory retrieval
(c) attention
(d) all of the above
97.While sitting in class, Jamie, a lO-year-old girl with a learning disability, is very distracted, fidgeting in her chair and not focusing on the lesson being delivered by the teacher. Which approach is most consistent with Jamie’s behavior?
(a) the comprehension deficit hypothesis
(b) the attentional deficit hypothesis
(c) disconnection syndrome
(d) classical conditioning
98.Which type of cognitive process has not been found to be dysfunctional in learning disabled individuals?
(a) working memory
(b) implicit learning
(c) short term memory
(d) semantic memory
99.Dual-task experiments using learning-disabled individuals as participants have suggested that the problems experienced by people with learning disabilities is due to a problem with:
(a) attention
(b) retrieval
(c) working memory
(d) LTM

100. Nick has the ability to memorize random strings of letters that are anywhere from 75-125 items long. If his brain were to undergo functional brain imaging while he was attempting to memorize such a stimulus, which area would likely show heightened activity?
(a) those involved with verbal memory
(b) those involved with letter processing
(c) those involved with spatial processing
(d) no areas would be heightened in relation to others

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