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The foundation of a research study comes from an understanding of the theory and from knowledge that is set forth by the literature in the field. Before a researcher can develop a sound and needed research design, he or she must first determine what is already known, how the topic has previously been studied, and where there are gaps in the knowledge and/or techniques that have been used to study the research problem.

In this module, you will further explore the research topic that you chose in M1 Assignment 2. Additionally, this will be the time to make any needed changes to your research question before you submit your proposal in M5 Assignment 2 RA 2. For this assignment, you will create a 3- to 4-page document following the directions given below.

Using the Internet, locate 6 peer-reviewed articles that could be used for the literature review portion of the research proposal in M5 Assignment 2 RA 2. The articles should fall into the following categories:

  • 2 quantitative studies
  • 2 qualitative studies
  • 1 mixed-methods study
  • 1 theoretical or research design of your choice

For each article, cover the following points in 250–350 words:

  • The problem to be studied
  • The rationale for the study
  • The type of research that was conducted (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods)
  • The data collection strategy
  • The data analysis tools that were used
  • A summary of the findings
  • A statement of how this article will support your proposed study

Present your work in a 3- to 5-page Microsoft Word document that follows the following format:

  • Reference the source in APA format.
  • Follow the reference with a single block paragraph of 250–350 words comprising your annotation (summary, evaluation, and reflection).
  • The whole block should be double-spaced and indented.
  • Repeat for the next article—don’t forget that your articles should be listed in alphabetical order just as you would on a standard APA reference page.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.

My Paper

Narrow it down to one pacific thing,

Research Questions and Hypotheses

Research Questions

  1. 1. What is the effect of PTSD on relationships among adolescents?
  2. 2. Does PTSD reduce social interactions among children and adolescents?
  3. 3. Does PTSD cause relationship problems among children and adolescents?


  1. 1. PTSD caused relationship problems among children and adolescents
  2. 2. PTSD does not cause relationship problems among children and adolescents.

Why Null Hypothesis is required

A null hypothesis is a type of hypothesis that objects the existence of the significant statistical relationship between two or more variables in the hypothesis. It also refers to the hypothesis that the researcher seeks to disprove. There are various reasons why the null hypothesis is necessary. As soon as both the null and alternative hypotheses have been identified, the null hypothesis can be utilized to interpret the outcomes of a statistical test (Adams & Lawrence, 2018). In particularly true when there is a need to draw a comparison between the outcomes to the sampling distribution that is determined by the null hypothesis. For instance, if the study outcomes fall within the region of acceptance, the null hypothesis is retained. The results in the assumption that there is no statistical support for the alternative hypothesis. On the other hand, if the study outcomes fall within the region of rejection, then the null hypothesis is rejected. The in results of the acceptance or support of the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis can also be significant in determining if the study findings are so different from those that were predicted by the null hypothesis. It will be important in examining if they were not part of the sampling distribution determined by the null hypothesis. 

Relationship of the Hypothesis to the Identified Problem

This study investigates the influence of PTSD on relationships among children and adolescents. The hypothesis of this study proposes that PTSD causes relationship problems among children and adolescents. The role of this hypothesis is to explore better ways of addressing the research problems. For instance, by understanding the influence of PTSD on relationships, this study can provide insights into how children and adolescents can develop social skills to relate well with others. This can be attained by improving their emotional communication capabilities to promote discussions that discourage trauma-related imaginations, feelings, and behaviors.

How this Hypothesis is Feasible

The hypothesis that I have selected for this study is feasible because it is not only measurable, but they can be easily verified and falsified. Also, the hypotheses have been clearly stated. This means that the researchers understand the scope of the study. It can make it possible for the researchers to understand the limits of the research and areas that do not fall within the scope of the study. The hypothesis is also feasible since it is in line with the research objective, which is to investigate the influence of PTSD on relationships between children and adolescents.

How the Hypothesis is Measurable and Testable

The hypothesis will be tested by examining if the independent variables are related to the dependent variables (Shi & Tao, 2008). For instance, there will need to explore if PTSD exerts significant influence on relationships among adolescents. Testing will have to be investigating if these relationships are statistically significant. For instance, hypothesis testing will include determination of whether such relationships are real or they are as a result of random variations. Such tests have be undertaken at a 90 percent confidence level. To undertake the tests, there will need to develop the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis. The null hypothesis will disapprove of the relationship between PTSD and relationships while the alternative hypothesis will propose that the relationship exists.


Adams, K. A., & Lawrence, E. K. (2018).  Research methods, statistics, and applications

Boston: Sage Publications.

Shi, N. Z., & Tao, J. (2008).  Statistical hypothesis testing: theory and methods. New York: 

World Scientific Publishing Company.

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