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Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s
older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an
example of:

stimulus substitution.

biological preparedness.

conditioned emotional response.

vicarious conditioning.

A teacher has decided to give “caught being good” tickets to
her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also
rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This
teacher is using:

observational learning.

punishment and classical conditioning.

operant conditioning.

classical conditioning.

In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment,
the children who had seena model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed
aggression toward the doll. Another group had seen the model get punished
rather than rewarded. Which of the following statements is true about these
other children?

They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to
demonstrate what the model had done.

They refused to beat up the doll under any circumstances.

They beat up the doll but denied doing so when asked about

Half of them beat up the doll and half did not.

Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his
parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon’s parents are using
what technique to modify his behavior?

punishment by removal

secondary reinforcement

negative reinforcement

punishment by application

After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an
active dislike of the dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when
hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed:

a reinforcer.

stimulus generalization.

higher-order conditioning.

spontaneous recovery.

The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning

the mental activity of analyzing another’s behavior and
making a choice to copy that behavior.

the ability of animals to learn new information.

the mental activity of consciously expecting something else
to occur.

biological preparedness.

Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object
or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result



operant conditioning.

biological preparedness.

Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs’ ___________.

circulatory systems

digestive systems

brain activity

social behavior

In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov’s dogs were
conditioned to salivate when they:

saw their trainers.

smelled their food.

saw their food bowl.

heard the sound of the metronome.

A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary
(reflex) response is a/an:

unconditioned response.

neutral stimulus.

unconditioned stimulus.

conditioned stimulus.

_________ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned
response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in
classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant

Stimulus generalization


Spontaneous recovery

Stimulus discrimination

Which psychologist is best known for working with children
and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching
others be aggressive?

Edward Tolman

Martin Seligman

Albert Bandura

B. F. Skinner

Which of the following is one of Bandura’s elements of
observational learning?





_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform
that behavior.

Observational learning

Partial reinforcement effect

Learning/performance distinction

Vicarious conditioning

It is believed that animals revert eventually to instinctual
behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with:

extinct behaviors.

obtaining food.

caring for their young.

other animals.

In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more
predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to
adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.

ratio schedule

fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

interval schedule

variable interval schedule of reinforcement

What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are
capable of?

reckless and controlled

pleasant and unpleasant

involuntary and voluntary

actions and basic survival instincts

The law of effect states if an action is followed by a
pleasurable consequence, the action is likely to:

reduce pain.

be repeated.

become a cognitive expectation.

be remembered.

Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the
other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as:

successive approximations.

successive reinforcers.

secondary reinforcers.

discriminative stimuli.

Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with

have found no support for the concept of animal insight.

have shown definitively that animals have insight.

have shown that chimpanzees are the only animals that have

have found support for the concept of animal insight.

In Seligman’s study on dogs, the dogs that were not
conditioned to fear the tone:

jumped over the fence when the tone sounded.

jumped over the fence when the shock started.

refused to move even after the shock started.

showed distress when the tone sounded.

In Köhler’s experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one
stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then he
learned to fit two sticks together to reach a banana placed farther away. This
was an example of:

latent learning.

classical conditioning.


trial-and-error learning.

In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the
rats in the group that did not receive reinforcement for solving the maze had:

learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a
cognitive map.

learned to expect reinforcement every tenth day.

more interest in the reinforcement than did the other

been more motivated by the variable interval schedule of

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes
useful is called:

a learning curve.

latent learning.

conditioned learning.

insight learning.

Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the
brain are called:

unconditioned response.


classical conditioning.


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