What modern view of psychological disorders developed at the end
of the 1800s?
Answers1. A. Psychological disorders are a form of illness that should be diagnosed and treated.2. B. Psychological disorders are actually thought disorders, rather than instances of spirit possession caused by witchcraft.3. C. Psychological disorders are mood disorders and should be treated by psychoanalysis.4. D. Psychological disorders have an underlying physical cause and thus should be treated by physical means.______________ coined the term psychophysics.
Answers1. A. Carl Jung2. B. Wilhelm Wundt3. C. Gustav Fechner4. D. G. Stanley Hall______________ believed that a detailed analysis of experience as it happened provides the most accurate glimpse into the workings of the human mind.
Answers1. A. Socialists2. B. Structuralists3. C. Behaviorists4. D. FunctionalistsIn the 1870s the first laboratories in psychology were opened in _____________.
Answers1. A. Germany2. B. China3. C. the United States4. D. AustriaPsychology gained its independence from philosophy when researchers started to examine and test human sensations and perception using ______________ methods.
Answers1. A. abstract2. B. behavioral3. C. scientific4. D. reflectionPsychology can be considered as an empirical science because:
Answers1. A. psychology originates from medicine.2. B. psychology is based on the laws of nature.3. C. psychologists test predictions about behavior with systematic observations and by gathering data.4. D. psychologists believe that human beings create knowledge from reflection and thinking.______________ asserts that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives.
Answers1. A. Structuralism2. B. Behaviorism3. C. Socialism4. D. FunctionalismWilhelm Wundt is credited with:
Answers1. A. giving psychology its independence from philosophy and physiology.2. B. identifying the effects of childhood experiences on the development of our adult personality.3. C. evaluating the effects of social forces on one`s behavior.4. D. developing the discipline of psychophysics.In the context of psychology, which of the following is a major difference between scientists and philosophers?
Answers1. A. Philosophers do not collect data to test their ideas.2. B. According to scientists, the mind simply receives what our sensory organs—eyes, ears, nose, skin, and tongue—take in from the outside world.3. C. Philosophers believe that human beings create knowledge from experience.4. D. According to scientists, human beings create knowledge from reflection and thinking.
Ed, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in how the
environment impacts tendencies to act. He believed that focusing on
the mind through introspection was not scientific. Ed was a:
Answers1. A. structuralist.2. B. functionalist.3. C. behaviorist.4. D. psychoanalyst.(p. 20) If we compare the human mind with a computer, sensation would be analogous to _____________.
Answers1. A. central processing unit (CPU) B. output2. C. storage device3. D. input
To compare psychophysics and physics, if physicists study the physical properties of light and sound, psychophysicists study:
Answers1. A. causes of light and sound.2. B. human perception of light and sound.3. C. commercial uses of light and sound.4. D. effects of light and sound on the environment.
______________ was the first to distinguish thought disorders (schizophrenia) from the mood disorders of melancholia (depression) and manic depression (bipolar disorder). His views were a major influence on diagnostic categories formulated during the 20th century.
Answers1. A. Dorothea Dix2. B. Sigmund Freud3. C. John Locke4. D. Emil Kraepelin
In the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud developed a form of therapy known as _____________.
Answers1. A. cognitive-behavioral therapy2. B. aversion therapy3. C. psychoanalysis4. D. behavior modification
Emil Kraepelin was the first to describe “dementia praecox,” the mental disorder now known as _____________.
Answers1. A. schizophrenia2. B. bipolar disorder3. C. major depressive disorder4. D. Munchausen`s syndrome
Which of the following statements is true regarding the ancient
views on psychology?
Answers1. A. The ancient Chinese made connections between a person`s bodily organs and their emotions.2. B. The earliest cultures to seek natural explanations for disorders were the ancient Americans.3. C. The ancient Chinese (2,600 BCE) believed in supernatural explanations of psychological disorders.4. D.Frenchman Philip Pinel was the first to write about a man suffering from a phobia of heights—what we now call acrophobia.Max, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in how the mind worked. He attempted to break experiences down into its component parts. Max was most likely a:
Answers1. A. structuralist.2. B. functionalist.3. C. behaviorist.4. D. psychoanalyst.______________ conducted some of the earliest research in perception and laid the groundwork for what later became known as psychophysics.
Answers1. A. William James2. B. Johns Hopkins3. C. Rosalie Raynor4. D. Ernst Weber(p. 17) Which of the following is NOT one of G. Stanley Hall’s achievements?
Answers1. A. He founded the American Psychological Association (APA).2. B. He opened the first psychology laboratory in the United States.3. C. He coined the term psychophysics.4. D. He started the first scientific journal in American psychology, the American Journal of Psychology.(p. 16) Which of the following behavior patterns was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1973?
Answers1. A. Dissociative identity disorder2. B. Homosexuality3. C. Conversion disorder4. D. Anxiety disorder(p. 13) The ancient Chinese made connections between a person’s bodily organs and their emotions. According to these connections, the ______________ housed ideas and intelligence.
Answers1. A. heart2. B. liver3. C. spleen4. D. kidneys(p. 13) The Greek physician ______________ was the first to write about a man suffering from a phobia of heights—what we now call acrophobia.
Answers1. A. Galen2. B. Hippocrates3. C. Socrates4. D. Aristotle(p. 18) According to structuralism:
Answers1. A. our experiences during childhood are a powerful force in the development of our adult personality.2. B. psychology is a sub-discipline of philosophy.3. C. breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior.4. D. psychology is an empirical science which is independent of medicine and physiology.(p. 19) ______________ psychology promotes personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one’s highest potential.
Answers1. A. Humanistic2. B. Gestalt3. C. Positive4. D. Holistic(p. 19) ______________ psychologists strive to understand people who are psychologically healthy, happy, and compassionate.
Answers1. A. Cognitive2. B. Developmental3. C. Positive4. D. Clinical(p. 15) Psychoanalysis assumes that:
Answers1. A. underlying biological events such as hormonal changes mediate all human behavior.2. B. the unconscious mind is the most powerful motivator of behavior.3. C. social forces are the most powerful motivators of adult behavior.4. D. D).dreams have no meaning to or relationship with the unconscious mind.(p. 14) Philip Pinel of France is said to have been the first major proponent of _____________.
Answers1. A. the use of narcotics to treat pain2. B. moral treatment of the mentally ill3. C. the study of the mind-body connection4. D. considering psychology as a science(p. 17) Who is considered the founder of American psychology?
Answers1. A. Elizabeth Loftus2. B. Carl Jung3. C. Sigmund Freud4. D. William James(p. 20) Gestalt psychology proposed that:
Answers1. A. people learn by making associations.2. B. breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior.3. C. psychology is a sub-discipline of philosophy.4. D. in perception a unified whole is more than a compilation of parts.(p. 15) The ______________ therapy focuses on changing a person’s maladaptive thought and behavior patterns by discussing and rewarding more appropriate ways of thinking and behaving.
Answers1. A. sublimation2. B. cognitive-behavioral3. C. repression4. D. reaction formation(p. 17) ______________ founded the American Psychological Association (APA).
Answers1. A. Carl Jung2. B. G. Stanley Hall3. C. Gustav Fechner4. D. Wilhelm Wundt(p. 15) Psychologists in the United States use a standardized reference for diagnosing mental disorders called _____________.
Answers1. A. The Interpretation of Dreams, by Sigmund Freud2. B. the American Psychological Association Guide to Mental Disorders (APAGMD)3. C. Dr. Freud`s Guide to Mental Illnesses (DFGMI)4. D. the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(p. 20) Cognitive science focuses on the scientific study of _____________.
Answers1. A. thought2. B. asylums3. C. computers4. D. school psychology(p. 19) Behaviorism is an extreme form of _____________.
Answers1. A. functionalism2. B. environmentalism3. C. structuralism4. D. empiricism(p. 20) Samantha sees a sign on a club’s marquee that says “CLUB _ EN FRO_ 8PM TO 4AM.” Although some letters are missing from the sign, she knows it is listing the hours when the club is open. Samantha’s perception would be of greater interest to ______________ psychologists.
Answers1. A. positive2. B. Gestalt3. C. industrial/organizational4. D. social(p. 19) Which of the following psychologists asserted that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives?
Answers1. A. William James 2. B. Abraham Maslow3. C. John Watson4. D. Carl Rogers(p. 17) In which year did Wundt set up a psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, now considered the birthplace of experimental psychology?
Answers1. A. 17292. B. 16523. C. 19654. D. 1879(p. 19) Dr. Hennesey believes that psychologists should analyze only human behavior that can be observed. He is most likely a strict _____________.
Answers1. A. humanistic psychologist2. B. functionalist3. C. behaviorist4. D. social psychologist(p. 20) If we compare the human mind with a computer, behavior and thoughts would be analogous to _____________.
Answers1. A. central processing unit (CPU)2. B. output3. C. storage device4. D. input(p. 15) Psychoanalysis assumes that the unconscious blocking, or repression, of disturbing thoughts and impulses—especially ______________ impulses—is at the heart of all maladaptive adult behavior.
Answers1. A. depressive and unethical2. B. aggressive and unethical3. C. illogical and depressive4. D. sexual and aggressive(p. 16) Which of the following fields is considered a “parent” of the discipline of psychology?
Answers1. A. Literature2. B. Physics3. C. Philosophy4. D. Chemistry(p. 16) The earliest researchers in psychology examined the subjective experience of physical sensations. This area of study is known as:
Answers1. A. neuroscience.2. B. philosophy.3. C. physiology.4. D. psychophysics.(p. 18) Which of the following early approaches to psychology focused on why and how people think and feel?
Answers1. A. Socialism2. B. Behaviorism3. C. Structuralism4. D. Functionalism(p. 16) Empiricism is the belief that knowledge and thoughts come from _____________.
Answers1. A. scriptures2. B. experience3. C. genetic endowment4. D. observation(p. 19) ______________ psychology shares with humanism a belief that psychology should focus on studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning.
Answers1. A. Health2. B. Developmental3. C. Psychological4. D. Positive(p. 13) In Europe during the Middle Ages (400 to 1400 CE [Common Era]), psychological disorders were attributed to:
Answers1. A. physiological disorders.2. B. deeds in past life.3. C. social status.4. D. supernatural causes.(p. 14) In the United States, the first practitioner of humane treatment of the mentally ill was _____________.
Answers1. A. René Descartes2. B. Sigmund Freud3. C. Dorothea Dix4. D. John Locke(p. 18) Jim, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in how the mind works. He focused on his own experience of pain in an effort to understand how and why people feel pain. Jim was most likely a:
Answers1. A. structuralist.2. B. functionalist.3. C. behaviorist.4. D. psychoanalyst.(p. 18) Mary Whiton Calkins:
Answers1. A. was the first female president of the American Psychological Association.2. B. was a student of Sigmund Freud.3. C. opened the first psychology laboratory in the United States.4. D. started the first scientific journal in American psychology, the American Journal of Psychology.(p. 18) In which of the following approaches to psychology was introspection the primary research method used to understand thoughts and behavior?
Answers1. A. Psychophysics2. B. Structuralism3. C. Empiricism4.D. Behaviorism
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