districts ability to prepare students to be college and career
ready is evaluated based upon standardized testing (William, 2010).
Even as standardized testing has been the focus of a great deal of
discussion and controversy in recent years regarding the validity
of using standardized test scores to determine student proficiency,
such tests have become more important as mandates such as No Child
Left Behind required the use of standardized tests to determine if
are adequately educating their students (Kim & Sunderman,
2005). Researchers have noted that the reliance on standardized
testing as a measure of how well school districts and their
teachers are educating students has resulted in administrators and
teachers changing their practices in order to achieve higher
(Supovitz, 2009). School administrators and teachers have placed
much more focus on the actions that they can take in order to
standardized testscores (Sink, 2003).
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The argument has been made that so-called high stakes testing has caused district administrators, principals, and even teachers to focus more on teaching to the tests rather than providing instruction that is more well-rounded and perhaps more interesting to both educators and students (Au, 2011). However, regardless of how administrators, principals, and teachers may perceive standardized testing, the reliance on standardized test scores as a measure of school district effectiveness has resulted in educators attempting to find means to increase those scores that are deemed to be lower than acceptable (McNeil, Coppola, Radigan & Heilig,
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