Lesson 81. The chief aim of sampling is to be able to selectsimple random samplesa sample whose statistics will accurately portray an unknown population parametera sample whose parameters will accurately portray an unknown population statistica sample whose statistics will accurately portray a known population parametera sample whose unknown statistics will accurately portray a know parameter2. A study population isthe theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of all elements as defined for a given surveythe theoretically specified aggregation of survey elementsthat aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selectedthat aggregation or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of samplingthat aggregation of elements from which information is collected3. The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis is called a(n)universesampling unitstatisticsampling frameelement4. In a situation of perfect homogeneity there is little need to be concerned with careful sampling procedures.TureFalse5. The size of the population must be taken into account when deciding on sample size.TrueFalse6. Non probability samplingalways produces samples that possess distorted characteristics relative to the populationdenies the researche the use of statistical theory to estimate the probability of correct inferencesshould never be used under any circumstancesincludes stratified samplingrequires the use of sampling frames7. Sample all the students in your research methods class. What kind of sampling design are you using?simple random samplingquota samplingcluster samplingstratified samplingreliance on available subjects8. Drawing a judgemental sampleallows researchers to use their prior knowledge about the topic.Enlists the aid of uninformed respondentsResults in a sample that has no researcher biasEnsures a representative sample.Requires the development of a quota matrix9. If a field researcher wanted to learn a political organization’s pattern of recruitment over time, the researcher might begin by interviewing a fairly recent recruit and ask who introdused that person to the organization. Then the researcher might interview the person named and ask who introduced that person to the political organization. This would be an example ofsnowball sampling.Systematic samplingDeviant cases samplingAccidental samplingQuota sampling’10. Professor Hall was planning to do a field study of hitchhikers. Hall wanted to be sure that persons representing all different age, racial, and sex categories were included in the sample of hitchhikers. What kind of sampling scheme would you recommend?deviant cases.Quota samplingStratified samplingSnowball samplingCluter sampling11. A researcher discovers that in a particular city 10% of the households are headed by a single person and that 90% of the families are husband-wife families. The researcher sends out interviewers an tells them to conduct 80 interviews and that 10% of these interviews should be with families that are headed by a single person, and 90% should be with husband-wife families. This researcher is usingsimple random samplingquota samplingcluster samplingstratified samplingaccidental sampling12. In general, as sample size increasesthe standard error increases in sizethe standard error decreases in sizethe standard error will remain the same regardless of changes in sample sizethe standard error is a constantthe standard error fluctuates in size13. Sampling error is reduced through an increase in the sample size and an increased homogeneity of the elements being sampled.TrueFalse14. Probability samples are advantageous to the researcher becausethe method by which they are selected limits consious and unconscious sampling biasthe accuracy or representativeness of the sample can be estimatedthey are perfectly representative of the population from which they are drawnall of these choices indicate the advantages of probability samplingthe method by which they are selected limits conscious and unconscious sampling bias and the accuracy or representativenes of the sample can be estimated15. A summary description of a given variable in a survey sample is called avariableparameterconfidence levelconfidence intervalstatistic16. If two samples of the same size are drawn from the same population using simple random sampling, it follows that they will have the same statistics.TrueFalse17. Generally, the more heterogeneous the population, the more beneficial it is to use stratified sampling.TrueFalse18. Stratification represnets a modification to rather than an alternative to simple random sampling and systematic sampling.TrueFalse19. A stratified sample is more likely to be representative on several variables than is a simple random sample.TrueFalse20. You want to select a sample of 250 people from a population of 30,000. To use the table of random numbers you need to work with a250 digit number3- digit number4- digit number5- digit number6- digit number21. A sampling interval of 5 was used to select a sample from a population of 1000. How many elements are to be in the sample?550100200100022. Every kth element in a list is chosen for inclusion in the sample insimple random samplingsystematic samplingdisproportionate samplingcluster samplingstratified sampling23. Periodicity is particularly important inSimple random samplingAvailability samplingStratified samplingQuota samplingSystematic sampling24. You are doing research on hospital personnel-orderlies, technicians, nurses, and doctors. You want to be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories. You want to use probability sampling/ An appropriate strategy would besimple random samplingquota samplingcluster samplingstratified samplingaccidental sampling25. Stratifying a population prior to drawing a samplegenerally occurs when the variables used to stratify are known to be associated with the dependent variableeliminates the need for simple random samplingis most useful for studying a homogeneous populationeliminates the need for probabiity samplingis an alternative systematic sampling26. A disadvantage of stratified sampling is that itdenies you the use of probability theoryrequires you to have some prior knowledge about the elements in the population prior to drawing the sampleusually increases the standard errorusually requires samples that are larger in size than those required by simple random samplingnone of these choices is a disadvantage of stratified sampling27. Multistage sampling design tend to have smaller sampling errors than single-stage sampling designs..TrueFalse28. To ensure a sufficient number of cases from strata of varying sizes, researchers use.simple random samplingsystematic samplingproportionate samplingdisproportionate samplingquota sampling29. Disproportionate sampling and weighting are used by the researcherto ensure a sufficient number of cases in each of the sample subpopulationsto give a proportionate representation to each sample elementto procide a representative picture of the total populationto handle situations involving the errors and approximation that are often inherent in complex, multistage designsall of these choices are correct30. Professor Alec O. Howlick is studying the incoming (freshmen) student drinking behavior at Boozemen State University in Boozemen, Kansas. Every incoming freshmen is required to have a university email address. After obtaining a list of all incoming freshmen students email addresses, he numbered every email address from 1 to 4,000. Using a random-number table, he obtained a sample of 200 freshman email addresses. He then emailed students requesting them to take an online survey. He also had two follow-up email reminders. A total of 180 students took the online survey.(1) What is Howlick’s sampling frame? a. the drinking behavior of students b. incoming freshmen telephone numbers c. student freshmen email addresses d. Boozemen State University (2) What is Drunkman’s population?a. all students living in Boozemen, Kansasb. all students enrolled in Boozemen State Universityc. students who drink alcohol in Boozemen, Kansasd. all incoming freshmen at Boozemen State University(3) What type of sampling did Professor Howlick use? a. stratified random sample b. simple random sample c. cluster sample d. sequential sample
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