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what role dose risk play in dentistry ?

The risk is often defined as the product of the likelihood of a harmful or undesirable event or action occurring (or a ‘hazard' as described in some contexts) and the consequence of the event, for example, the severity of harm caused (Europe Economics.2014).
With this in intention,The risk in the dental field is mostly negative and relies on hazards (something with the potential to cause harm) not only to the dental practitioners but also to the patients. There are a dozen risks that might have an effect on the dental clinician, for example, the possibility of being exposed to infection or injury throughout any procedure or long-term pain and disability due to stress working posture. Moreover, the patients …show more content…
This goal could be achieved through diverse preventive approaches. One of the foremost implemented preventive measures is community water fluoridation.

Community water fluoridation is "the controlled addition of fluoridecompound to a public water supply to achieve a concentration optimal for dental cariesprevention" (Rockville,2000, cited in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015, p.1). Notwithstanding the general perception of community water fluoridation worldwide, which recognizes it as an opportunity, some opponents see it as a hazard.

In other word Adding or adjusting the level of fluoride in the public water supply, knowing that everyone in the community will consume that amount of fluoride, could be perceived as a risk; it could be harmful or beneficial. In 1945, Grand Rapids, Michigan took this risky step by being the first city in the world to establish a community water fluoridation system. This action was taken after many studies showed a remarkable a relationship between fluoride levels in the water and reduced prevalence of dental caries11,12 (American Dental Association, …show more content…
and it can found naturally in some foods and beverages, like fish and tea, and also normally exist in most of the water supply, but the concentration is different. Fluoride helps in increasing tooth strength and makes it more decay-resistant. Also, it helps the tooth repair in the early decay stage through remineralization. Fluoride could be applied typically, like toothpaste, fluoride varnish, and mouth rinse, or it may be used systemically through a different approach, like fluoridated salt and fluoride tablets. Water fluoridation provides both types of exposure.

"The value of water fluoridation is recognized internationally. Countries and geographic regions with extensive water fluoridation include the U.S., Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Columbia, Ireland, Israel, Malaysia, New Zealand, People's Republic of China (Hong Kong only), Singapore and the United Kingdom" (American Dental Association, 2005).

Molly (2013) states, "Many countries now have fluoridated water, and, at least, a dozen countries have greater than 40 percent population coverage"(Jones, 2005). In 2008, fluoridated water in the United States reached an estimated 64 percent of the total population and approximately 72 percent of the population who had access to public water systems.(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2012). The percentage of people receiving fluoridated water has doubled in the last 50 years.(U.S. Department of

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