The before-and-after design is often used to demonstrateA.contingent tolerance. B.metabolic tolerance. C.situationally specific tolerance. D.functional tolerance.Much of what we believe about the biopsychology of drug addiction is based on the study of drug self-administration in laboratory animals, but there is a major concern:A.Most of the research has been based on opiate self-administration. B.Most of the research has been based on stimulant self-administration. C.The housing and testing conditions have been unnatural. D.both B and CWhich of the following seem to share some brain mechanisms with habitual drug taking?A.kleptomania B.overeating C.compulsive shopping D.all of the aboveRecent research suggests that during the transition from initial drug taking to habitual drug taking.A.there are impairments in the function of prefrontal cortex. B.the control of drug taking is shifted from the nucleus accumbens. C.the control of drug taking is shifted to the dorsal striatum. D.all of the aboveEach T cell has two kinds of receptors on its membrane: one for molecules normally found on the surface of __________ and one for a specific __________.A.antigens; macrophage B.antigens; antibody C.macrophages; antigen D.antibodies; antigenVaccination is often an effective preventive measure becauseA.viruses have a memory. B.the adaptive immune system has a memory. C.conspecifics have a memory. D.the innate immune system has a memory.Subordination stress is most readily investigated in species that formA.attack teams. B.stable dominance hierarchies. C.social aggression groups. D.permanent mating bonds.The areas of the cortex that control emotion seem toA.vary substantially from emotion to emotion and person to person. B.be clustered in the prefrontal lobes. C.be clustered in the temporal lobes. D.be clustered in the right hemisphere.The main difficulty in diagnosing psychiatric disorders is thatA.patients suffering from the same psychiatric disorder often display different symptoms. B.patients suffering from different psychiatric disorders often display the same symptoms. C.dream analysis is subjective and expensive. D.both A and BSeveral large scale studies have compared the effectiveness of various antidepressants to placebos. These studies have found thatA.various classes of antidepressants are similarly effective. B.overall, antidepressants benefitted only 25% more patients than did placebos. C.antidepressants are of no significant benefit for the mildly or moderately depressed. D.all of the aboveDrugs for which the market is too small for them to be profitable are called __________ drugs.A.orphan B.translational C.noneconomic D.petit malWhich neurotransmitter has been most often implicated in anxiety disorders because of the effects of benzodiazepines?A.GABA B.dopamine C.norepinephrine D.glutamate
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