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Introduction: What Are Stress Fractures? Stress fractures account for approximately twenty percent of athletic injuries, with eighty percent of stress fractures occurring in the lower leg. Stress fractures in the lower extremity are common injuries among individuals who participate in endurance, high load-bearing activities (2). The incidence of these injuries has risen due to earlier and longer participation in sports (3). Stress fractures occur when repetitive mechanical load exceeds the biological capacity of bone, causing micro-damage (1). This rate exceeds the rate at which bone can repair itself, requiring recognition and management of risk factors (2). The initial stage of bone failure is typically called a stress reaction. If the repetitive loading continues, the stress reaction can form into a true stress fracture (3). Furthermore, specific intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors can make an athlete more likely to sustain a stress fracture. …show more content…
Two forms of treatment can be implemented when dealing with a stress fracture of the great toe sesamoid; non-operative and operative. Non-operative treatment of an acute sesamoid stress fracture requires a period of immobilization and protected weight bearing. The goal is to manage weight bearing through the heel for a period of six to eight weeks, giving the sesamoid bones a chance to heal properly. If a displaced sesamoid stress fracture is present, it is essential that surgical intervention is performed. Chronic stress fractures can also be treated non-operatively. Ideally, the area under the base of the great toe is protected through the use of an orthotic. The use of an orthotic can be used in combination with a cushioned insole and a stiff sole of the shoe. The stiff sole allows for a dispersion of force away from the base of the great toe. In addition, moderation of activities will be implemented to prevent excessive loading to the area

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