was considered a mental illness just 41 years ago. This "mental
illness" was included in the DSM-II. In 1988, Kenneth Lewes, a
psychoanalytic scholar, argues that Sigmund Freud came up with four
theories of homosexuality, "1. Homosexuality arises as an outcome
of the Oedipus conflict and the boy's discovery that his mother is
castrated. This induces an intense castration anxiety that causes
the boy to turn from his castrated mother to a "woman with a penis"
i.e., a boy with a feminine appearance. 2. In the Three Essays,
Freud developed the theory that the future homosexual child is so
over-attached to his mother that he identifies with her and
himself so he can love them like his mother
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However, He did not view homosexualityas any form of an illness. Homosexuality was viewed as an expression of an innate instinct. Several years after Freud had passed away, analyst Sandor Rado's theory on homosexuality surpassed Freud's. "Rado viewed homosexuality as a phobic avoidance of the other sex caused by parental prohibitions against childhood sexuality." APA officially removed homosexuality as a mental illness in 1973. "Gay activists began to confront the APA about its position on homosexuality. There were a series of dramatic encounters between activists and psychiatrists at the annual meetings of the APA between 1970 and 1972." Even though the APA opposed the actions of the activists, the number of psychiatrists who supported the activists' view were increasing. The APA Task Force on Nomenclature and Statistics, Dr. Robert Spitzer included, agreed to meet with a group of gay activists who presented evidence to the task force and convinced them to study the issue further. "The decision to declassify homosexuality was accompanied by the passage of an APA Position Statement, which supported the protection of the civil rights of homosexual
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