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Module 3 & 4 Discussion
Quantitative Design
Read this fictitious study and then answer the questions that follow:
Brusser and Joansy wanted to test the effectiveness of a new relaxation/biofeedback intervention on menopausal symptoms.  They invited women who presented themselves in an outpatient clinic with complaints of severe hot flashes to participate in the study of the experimental treatment.  These 50 women were asked to record, every day for 3 weeks before the intervention, the frequency and duration of their hot flashes.  The intervention involved five 1-hour sessions over a period of 1 week.  Then for 3 weeks after the treatment the women were asked to record their hot flashes again every day.   At the end of the study, Brusser and Joansy found that both the frequency and average duration of the hot flashes had been significantly reduced in this sample of 50 women.  They concluded that their intervention was an effective therapy in treating menopausal hot flashes.  
What is the independent variable in this study?
What are the dependent variables in this study?
Was there random assignment in this study?
Is the design experimental, quasi-experimental, pre-experimental, or nonexperimental?
What is the specific name of the design used in this study?
Is the study design within subjects or between subjects?
Was there blinding in this study?
Provide at least one way in which this study could have been improved based on your chapter readings.
Here is a brief summary of the data collection plan of a fictitious study.  Read the summary and then respond to the questions that follow.
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults’ blood pressure and their suppression of anger.  Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 22 to 60 who were members of a gym in Washington DC.  Subjects completed two paper and pencil scales:  The Feeling of Anger Scale and the Expression of Anger Scale.  The scales used a 9 point rating scales.  Responses to each scale were summed to yield a total score for each variable.  The subjects’ BP was measured by nurses using zero calibrated aneroid sphygmomanometers.  Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a t-shirt on an upright scale to the nearest 10th of a pound.  Heights was measured without shoes, feet together.  All instruments were assessed at being below the eighth grade level.  The results indicated for both men and women higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger even when various variables were statistically controlled.
Which of the following types of data were collected in this study (self-report, observation, biophysiologic, records)?
Were the data collection methods structured or unstructured?
For which variables did Traina NOT derive numeric information?
Which of the following specific methods were used (likert-type scale, semantic differential scale, event history calendar, rank-order questions, Q-sort)?
Which type of data collection was used: telephone interview, personal interview, web-based interview, or self-administered questionnaire?
Was readability assessed?  At what level?
Provide at least one way that data collection and measurement effort be improved in this study based on your readings.

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