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Running head: ESSENTIALS OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGYEssentials of PathophysiologyNameInstitution1ESSENTIALS OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY2Essentials of PathophysiologyPathophysiology of HIVThe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs when the blood-borne virus takes overthe host defense system and begins to replicate leading to multiple virions (Maeda et al., 2019).The mechanism of action involves binding to the CD4-T cells that are responsible for fightingforeign antigens. The virus contains some proteins on its structures that help in the bindingprocess on the CD4+ cells using the chemokine receptors (Vidya Vijayan et al., 2017). Once thehost cells are infected by HV, they become weakened and their life span is reduced. New hostcells continue to be infected leading to the generation of billions of copies of the virus. Althoughthe host immune system is trying to act on the viruses using dendritic cells, only a few of theviruses are eliminated. The infected cells then move to the lymph nodes and the peripheral bloodleading to multiple multiplications. Since CD4+ cells are recruited to fight infection in the lymphnodes, they become susceptible to the virus which aids in the binding and integration of the virus(Vidya Vijayan et al., 2017). Therefore, patients may experience lymphadenopathy in the acutepresentation of the disease.The monocytes, which are blood cells that help in fighting infection, act as the reservoirsof the virus leading to more proliferation and not ...


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