The large number of people crossing international borders has been well publicized in the twenty first century, (Marsella & Ring, 2003; Sloan, 2005). Immigration increases have often been accompanied by negative attitudes toward the migrants (Yakushko, 2009). Immigration has been the subject of many political debates in countries throughout the world (Munro, 2006; Crush & Ramachandran, 2010). Xenophobia in the United States and the European Union has been publicized and recorded, (Smith & Edmonston, 1997;; Pettigrew, 1998, Finzsch & Schirmer, 2002). This phenomenon is also occurring in Asia, Africa, and Latin America but probably not as well known. (e.g., Crush, 2001; Vale, 2002).
Xenophobia has been defined as attitudinal and show more content
Also, in a more current study, Moïsi (2009) concluded that when confronted with immigration, both the USA and Europe are dominated by a fear of the other as well as a fear of losing national identity and purpose. Since the importance of the fear dimension of xenophobia has been recognized, it is important to select a research instrument that measures this show more content
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