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Introduction

The large number of people crossing international borders has been well publicized in the twenty first century, (Marsella & Ring, 2003; Sloan, 2005). Immigration increases have often been accompanied by negative attitudes toward the migrants (Yakushko, 2009). Immigration has been the subject of many political debates in countries throughout the world (Munro, 2006; Crush & Ramachandran, 2010). Xenophobia in the United States and the European Union has been publicized and recorded, (Smith & Edmonston, 1997;; Pettigrew, 1998, Finzsch & Schirmer, 2002). This phenomenon is also occurring in Asia, Africa, and Latin America but probably not as well known. (e.g., Crush, 2001; Vale, 2002).
Xenophobia has been defined as attitudinal and …show more content…
Also, in a more current study, Moïsi (2009) concluded that when confronted with immigration, both the USA and Europe are dominated by a fear of the “other” as well as a fear of losing national identity and purpose. Since the importance of the fear dimension of xenophobia has been recognized, it is important to select a research instrument that measures this …show more content…
(2001) the dark side of democracy: migration, xenophobia, and human rights in South africa. International Migration, 38, 103-133.

Crush, J., & Ramachandran, S. (2010) Xenophobia, international migration and de- velopment. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities: a Multi-disciplinary Jour- nal for People-centered Development, 11, 209-228. DOI:10.1080/19452821003677327.

Dunn-Rankin, P., Knezek, G. A., Wallace, S., & Zhang, S. (2004) Scaling methods. (2nd ed.) Mahwah, NJ: erlbaum.

Esses, V. M., Dovidio, J. F., Jackson, L. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (2001) The immigration dilemma: the role of perceived group competition, ethnic prejudice, and national identity. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 389-412.

Finzsch, N., & Schirmer, D. (Eds.) (2002) Identity and intolerance: nationalism, rac- ism, and xenophobia in Germany and the United States. Cambridge, uK: Cambridge univer. Press.

Hartung, H. (2000) Eurobarometer 53: racism, information society, general services, and food labeling. Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 3064. Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv für empirsche Sozialforschung.

Licata, L., & Klein, O. (2002) Does European citizenship breed xenophobia? Euro- pean identification as a predictor of intolerance towards immigrants. Journal of Community and applied Social Psychology, 12,

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